Electronics Engineering Magazine

Monday, December 15, 2014

Closed Loop Control Systems

A Closed Loop Control System is the most important aspect of Maintenance, Regulation and Stability in any Live Process. Nature itself is self regulated in an intricate fashion, a keen observer can notice the subtle controls. In Human Created Industrial systems we have Process control as a complex science. We can start by understanding a Simple One.

Process Control Application Notes

When you fill a Bucket with water, You keep an eye on the Level of water, as you open the Analog Tap, which is an equivalent of a Motor operated Valve. Your Eye is an advanced Optical Sensor, which is able to sense the level by the computation in the brain, which in turn operates the muscles of your hand, thru the nervous system. The hand along with the Water Tap is is the Actuator. As the water fills up close to the top, you start reduction of the water flow and keep observing, then as it tops up, you tweak the tap to a trickle. When it reaches the limit you shut off the tap.

Closed Loop Control Systems

While you are half way filling the bucket, what happens if you take a short nap, or a friend comes by and you are get absorbed in conversation, the water overflows and goes waste. Then someone raises an alarm after the Runaway process happens. This is of minor consequence, but it is not so in the case of Temperature, Pressure and also many common systems like the driving of an Automobile. Remember the gears, brakes, accelerator to control and steer the car to the correct destination, a Runaway Process causes an accident.

    Thursday, December 11, 2014

    Computer Data Interface - delabs

    The PC is now an economic and common equipment at home or office. Due to Open source and GNU Linux, many professional programs and environments are easily accessible. To interface it to the real world is a step in learning Automation and Robotics.

    Computer Data Interface - delabs

    Computer Data Interface - delabs

    In Automation we have both Industrial and Home. You can start with home automation, as industrial automation is more complex. But in Home Automation, Safety First should be emphasized, Any neglect in care of electrical hazards will neutralize any advantage of Home Automation.

    Printer Port

    Do not apply voltage above 5V to any pin of printer port, ensure earthing is good, use opto couplers for inputs and outputs if you are not sure. wrong use will damage motherboard, these circuits should be used only if your basics are very sound.

    Anantha Narayan 16:16 30-Mar-07

    Analog Interface for PC Ports.
    Control Interface to PC Ports.
    Project Source - virtual-instrumentation - Examples of Computer Interface to Instruments

    Tuesday, December 09, 2014

    Dual Differential Amp - Op-Amp Designs

    The Input Impedance of this module is very high and is symmetric. This circuit can be used for strain gauges and for four wire measurements. If inputs are in mV use OP07. The merit is that it uses only 2 OpAmps yet has high differential Input Impedance.

    Dual Differential Amp - Op-Amp Designs

    Dual Differential Amp - Op-Amp Designs

    The Outputs of Opamps are low impedance but still have limits they cannot drive more than a few mA of Current into the Load. If low ohmic value loads are to be applied use external transistors as amplifiers. If inputs Vn-Vp are floating, outputs may be random or oscillating, it is good to have a bias network of 10M resistors to a potential even zero or common, this enables some Vout when input floats.

    Dual Differential Amp Tutorial xml code

    delabs Design Service and Custom Projects

    Some old examples of open custom designs. these were made to educate the customer and also study the capability  of online communication and and collaboration tools for such activity.
    Two Stage Sequential Timer Docs - 

    The circuit is a two stage sequential timer with auto reset. It can turn a Solenoid On/Off after a Sequence of delays that are preset. This is also a basic example of timer usage in automation.

    Design Documents
    All Timers are 1 - 30 Secs Analog with Presets to adjust with a screwdriver. The Switch, Solenoids and Power supply has to be via terminal blocks or plug-jacks. The PCB may be upto six Square Inches for standard DIP components but with SMD it may be smaller.

    delabs Design Service and Custom Projects

    Four Channel Temperature Alarm Docs

    The temperature in a pipe is monitored with four RTD Pt-100 Sensors, The type of probe could be Extruder RTD probes with Bayonet or Compression Fitting, Get it from Omega. To keep costs low you can choose small thin film RTD sensors, they will be fast but on rough usage may break.

    Design Documents
    The time taken to measure the temperature at the 4 points will be less than 4 seconds. An optional display of the measured temperature as shown above can be avoided by using a DMM to adjust the setpoint.

    The Analog Timer Module can be set from 0- 30 minutes. If out-a remains high even after set time a out-b alarm goes on to sound a buzzer and flash a LED light.

    Monday, December 08, 2014

    Differential Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    A very simple one op-amp diff amp. This amplifies the difference between two inputs Vp and Vn the low impedance of this configuration is a drawback, but can be used in analog computing. Optimum VCC VDD can be +12/-12. AC signals common to Vp and Vn are canceled by this configuration.

    Differential Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    Differential Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    Use a capacitor like 10nF plastic from pin 2 to 3 or across R2 to make circuit stable. For AC applications use LF351 TLO71 as they have good slew rate and also are FET inputs. For AC applications use a capacitor (1uF) in series with Ri to block DC Components. The Inputs have asymmetrical input impedance this affects CMRR, also use 1% tolerance MFR resistors for Rf and Ri.

    Simple Differential Amplifier Tutor xml code

    Tuesday, December 02, 2014

    Non Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    The input impedance of this module is very high, if U1 is OP07 it is in mega/giga ohms, use CA3140 or LF356 fet input opamps to get 1 tera ohm input impedance, but for high gains OP07 is better as it is ultra low offset. This is a good amplifier for sensor outputs, as it is a DC Circuit.

    Non Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    Non Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    The zener diodes protect the opamp inputs, R1 limits current during high voltage inputs and R1 and C1 form a filter to remove some ac components, C1 should be a plastic type as ceramic and electrolytic caps are leaky. A large C1 will slow the response time, the sum of Ri + Rf should be greater than 5k so that output is not loaded. Do not connect output to voltages more than vcc/vdd, it will blow Opamp.

    Non-Inverting Op-Amp Tutorial xml code

    Thursday, November 20, 2014

    Thermocouple and Pt-100 RTD

    The easiest way to measure temperature is with a glass diode like 1N4148 or a metal Transistor like 2N2222. These have a small temperature range, probably -5 to +120 is possible, but non-linear. A copper coil or any metal wire or even a wirewound resistor can work as temperature sensor but the thermal inertia makes it sluggish. IC semiconductor based sensors like LM335 and AD590 are easy to work with and pretty accurate. In industrial environment many types of Thermocouples, Pt-100 RTD and Optical Infra-Red Temperature measurements are used.

    Input Levels for Thermocouples and RTD Pt-100. And the ways it has to be used. Thermocouples are selected on the basis on how they are mounted or fixed, the environment, the temperature range that is measured and finally the price you can afford for a particular application. Sometimes mechanical wear or chemical environments may eat away the sensors, so a cost-effective solution has to be evolved.

    One customer wanted a special Pt-PtRh very high temperature sensor for molten aluminum. It was very difficult and costly to even arrive at a solution. So a non-contact infra-red sensor may save lot of time-money and even reduce risk of injury.

    Thermocouples and RTD Tables

    For J, K, and T Thermocouple Read "Temperature" + Room Temperature for mV shown applied to equipment, eg....

    If Room Temperature is 25 Deg C and mv applied is 10.777 for J Type STC1000 then reading should be 200 + RT = 225 deg C. The mV shown are for Reference Junction at 0 Deg C.

    It would be better if you refer links below, The above table i made long ago, then a Scan with OCR later formatting. It could have errors.

    Read More

    Friday, November 14, 2014

    Engineering Management Equations

    Call it Quotes or Ideas or Instructions, these are thoughts that came from me from the past tech experiences of over twenty years.

    Technologies should scale with Infrastructure. Buildings cannot stress the Foundations meant for. Traffic proportional to Road Width. Sync. Software should not overwhelm or Overload Hardware.

    Raw Materials - Components - Finished Products. The Entire Processing and Design Chain has to improve, if the final Product has to Shine.

    Management of Engineering and Technology

    Value Engineering
    In Engineering High Value products are those that are a combination of Precision Mechanical + Electrical + Analog + Embedded Microcontroller.

    Tools Theory Practice
    Excellent Tools alone are not enough, The Techniques & Methods have to be learnt, Then the Skills have to be acquired by Strenuous Practice.

    Software 7S
    The 7S - Software Should be - Simple, Stable, Spry, Slim, Scalable, Sensible, Scrimping.

    Incremental Coding
    I do incremental coding - code few lines, test, code again, test. Some extra code to interface for test inputs/outputs (virtual instrument). Incremental Coding, Modular. Test Points.

    An Engineered Equation
    ( technologies + skills + processes ) X ( monitored + managed ) = engineering.

    Keep Designs Simple
    Circuit or Code - Keep it Simple, Modular, Reusable, Documented, Controlled, Compact, Clear, Creative, Maintainable, Testable, Tunable.

    Tuesday, November 11, 2014

    Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    This is an Op-Amp Tutorial. Here you see an Operational Amplifier in the Inverting Amp configuration. I have used OP07 as it is almost like an ideal Opamp. The ultra low offset is the best part. Then not really, CA3140 has a Tera Ohm Input resistance but offset not the best. ICL7650 approaches an Ideal Op-Amp and chopper stabilized.

    Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    These parameters are good for DC Amps. Sensors, Strain Gauge Bridges Signal Conditioning need them. Then when you want a better AC performance, you can use a LF353 with a nice slew rate. Here the DC merits are not of much use.

    Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

    Input Impedance of this module is Ri as pin 2 is at virtual ground, the opamp with feedback tries to maintain pin 2 and 3 at same potential pin 3 is at 0V hence pin 2 is at virtual ground. Clamping diodes protect OpAmp, Rf + Ri is between 5kE and 1ME as an opamp may be able to drive around say 5mA max

    Inverting Op-Amp Tutorial xml code

    Friday, November 07, 2014

    Buffer Unity Gain Amp - Op-Amp Designs

    If output impedance of a point is a high value then connecting another circuit at that point will load it, resulting in malfunction or error. Buffers are used as interface between circuits.

    Low impedance of an output means it can source/sink lot of current, when you need 2 opamps use LF353 or TL072 which are dual opamps.

    Buffer Unity Gain Amp - dapj Tech Widgets

    Buffer Unity Gain Amp - Op-Amp Designs

    A non-inv FET input is the best buffer, for inverting buffer use high R values. Using very high R values like 2.2M or higher requires a glass epoxy PCB and guard rings around pin 2, 3 to prevent leakage currents on the PCB reaching the PINs.

    Also moisture and dust has to be prevented by using RTV coating or Varnish. Use 78L05 and 79L05 for the dual supply required by this circuit.

    Buffer Unity Gain Op-Amp Tutorial xml code

    Tuesday, November 04, 2014

    Electronic and Instrumentation Tables

    Tables, charts, quick reference cards, booklets and handbooks; are the most versatile tools of learning and putting the learning into applications. These should not have a lot of language or flowing text. These are - to the point, easy to remember, graphical, colorful (memory aid).

    Electronic Tables and Charts

    Electronic and Instrumentation Tables

    Just like a circuit diagram, flow chart or ladder logic can graphically interface with a human mind, Tables and Charts easily embed into ones memory.

    Monday, November 03, 2014

    Virtual Oscilloscope - Visualize Equations

    Oscilloscope Functions and Fourier Series. Periodic Waveforms. Watch Sine, Square, Triangle and Sawtooth Waves and Study Controls. This Scope is a Real Time Graph of Volts Y and Time X at any node of a circuit. It can show both AC and DC.

    Virtual Oscilloscope - Visualize Equations

    Load an equation of your own and see it as a waveform on this web scope. Paste a Formula in the Equation text box, load it, it will be rendered as waveform on scope. Learn from this page ....

    Virtual Oscilloscope - Visualize Equations

    JS Oscilloscope xml code

    Just turn it on and then press demo button for 1st Waveform and Press again the demo button for 2nd Wave and so on. Still working on formulas. Slide all the pots and see what happens.

    digital-oscilloscope - An Oscilloscope Simulation using CSS and JavaScript

    Related Oscilloscope Information

    Saturday, October 18, 2014

    Power Electronics and Mains Power

    Updated pages, and integrated new pages with some explanations. These are related to mains power and power electronics.

    Power and Energy - Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

    Electrical Power can be used for most anything. It also can be stored and used later using Batteries. Alternative Energy Solutions like Solar, Wind and Tidal are providing new sources of Energy.

    Fossil Fuels are running out and we have to become more energy efficient. Notebooks and Tablets are fast replacing desktop computers. Network servers and Cloud Solutions still use more power than needed. We have to use power for Productive and Creative activities.

    Wastage of too much power leaves a mark, a carbon footprint, we also should shift to the low safe voltage standard of 24V. This will make conversion and distribution safe and solar energy friendly.

    Power Electronics & Energy Systems

    Power Electronics & Energy Systems

    Tables related to Power Electronics

    Discrete devices and other circuits

    Friday, October 17, 2014

    Electromagnetic Relays and SSR

    Electromagnetic Relays - 
    Electromagnetic Relay
    NO - Normally Open
    when the relay is not energized or activated, this terminal is open-circuit.

    NC - Normally Closed
    when the relay is not energized or activated, this terminal is closed circuit.

    COM - The Common
    Center Terminal in relays. This is the center terminal that closes circuit with NC-NO.

    The terminals are potential free and floating and are insulated from the control signals or coil windings by many kilo volts. Many provide visible isolation. These terms apply to SSR or Big Contacters too.
    Solid State Relays -

    These designs were improvements i made on the Application Notes of Motorola Semiconductor (freescale) and Thomson CSF (stmicro) Thyristor Data. The parts are still available, now made by other firms. You can also find similar equivalents.

    Solid State Relays - SSR

    Solid State Relays - SSR

    They are called SSR as there are made of semiconductors and have no moving parts to wear out. They do generate heat depending on load and switching. Thyristors are used in most as they are rugged, mosfets and IGBT may also be used for various applications.

    In this section you will find SSR designs and PCB layouts which you can study. These were made and sold by me years ago. So the PCB layouts have gone thru some revisions and they worked quite well.
    Applications -

    Many machines and equipment use some SSRs in their products which may need replacement. So the SSR is not only sold to OEMs but also to Service-Maintenance Market. These are also modified as Output Modules for digital outputs coming from embedded systems or Computers.

    Wednesday, October 15, 2014

    Power Electronics Section

    Here are power supply, inverter, drives, chargers and high current equipment diagrams and links. There are Mosfet and Thyristor circuits too.

    Power Electronics Section

    Power Supplies, Inverters, UPS, Chargers, Electro Plating, Precision Welding-erosion, Coating Metals and many other Processes are made of high current circuits. Even in measurement of parameters like Micro-Ohm high currents are involved. Electronic Circuits are required in such products to give control to time, current, frequency and voltage in order to accomplish with the required precision a process or job.

    Power Electronics Section - delabs
    In any power equipment, efficiency and reduction of bulk is crucial so SMPS and high frequency control is an important part of this domain. These products also generate EMI-RFI. Product Safety Study is also vital.

    The Power Circuits Section has been updated.

    Tuesday, October 07, 2014

    Eco Green Digital Alarm Clock

    This is an upgrade of the digital-alarm-clock gadget which used embed for sound. In this version it uses SoundManager 2. The older version remains intact. The Clock Manual with more details.

    You can set Five Alarms with Ten Selectable Musical Sounds and a small Text memo. Digital Alarm Clock Web Gadget with Musical Alarms. - See the Live demo here - Eco Alarm Clock

    This is an Alarm Clock Simulation, Eco Green is to inspire saving energy and keeping earth Green, Clean and last longer.

    Eco Green Digital Alarm Clock

    This is an experimental gadget, usable but not easy. This gadget can demonstrate how difficult ergonomics is, when you need to press buttons in sequence to get an electronic gadget to perform.

    I am still trying to fit the best functionality within the 210px-115px GUI real estate. Now with sound manager which uses flash, alarm sounds may be more consistent. Making various sound/video formats play on all browsers is a messy task. Flash makes it easy but you need a plugin.

    Monday, September 15, 2014

    Circuits using only discrete devices

    Here are circuits made of Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors which are passive components. Crystals, Thermistors, Varistors, Variable Passive RLC are also Passive Parts.

    Circuits using only discrete devices

    Zeners, Diodes, NPN-PNP Transistors, FET, MOSFET, SCR, Triacs are all discrete active devices. ICs and Hybrid Modules are made of many discrete and passive components. In the Integrated Circuits or ASICs, all parts even passives are derived on the Silicon Wafer. In Hybrid Modules the construction uses SMD or Tiny Chip components interconnected in a small ceramic PCB and Hermetically Sealed if needed.

    Parts or Components in Electronics

    Parts like Switches, Connectors, Relays and PCBs are ElectroMechanical parts. Nuts, Bolts, Screws, Cabinets and enclosures are Mechanical parts.

    For a Systems Integrator or Control Panel Designer, the Timers, Controllers, PLC which are Electronic Products become Components or Modules along with Contacters, Current Transformers, AC-DC Drives etc.

    Saturday, September 13, 2014

    Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

    Many times we cannot carry big or expensive test instruments to the field, so we have to have a troubleshooting tool kit. Continuity testers, Logic Probes, DMM, Clamp Meters etc.. You can troubleshoot and repair Electronic Equipment easily with Meters and Continuity Tester

    It also is sometimes required to build a quick jig or fixture with electronics to troubleshoot, simulate a problem or to test the reliability or aging of components and systems. Here you need to be cost effective, fast and innovative; and build a simple system with available, affordable or procurable resources. Hence a bit of circuit design, firmware and software are essential skills for production engineering.

    This was designed, keeping in mind, that sometimes we have few components available and we could be flat broke. Even that you could not carry your DMM somewhere, but you have to make some instrument for a quick need with what is available. If you are out of cash or feel like Robinson Crusoe, then this is a low cost measurement system. I designed it to practice on eagle, i am not sure how this circuit may work, it is not tested . But i have built, repaired and designed many DMMs. So there is a fair chance, parts of it may work :~)

    IC3 LM555 is to generate -5V from 9V. That reminds me of a story, In 1986 while i was studying BE electronics i got a chance to work part-time in a company that sold-serviced imported instruments, it was called trans-marketing. They were the agents for Racal-Dana, Genrad, Data I/O and so many more. Here i came across a Book called CMOS Hot Ideas of Intersil. I had a chance to observe, build and learn some things here. The ICL7107 circuit was the most fascinating, I also read the books of National Semiconductor here.

    Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

    In those days small firms used to make DPM's digital panel meters with 7107. In 1987 when i got a oppurtunity to design a DPM for a firm, I put the 555 clock in place CD4009 clock shown in intersil, to derive the -5.

    Potentiometer Dial GIF for above circuit to be used to make a hand-held avo-meter is here.

    Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

    Small Electronic Testing Tools - Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

    Test Measurement and Test jigs

    Test Tools are needed for Troubleshooting and Repairing Electronic Gadgets, Equipment, Electrical Panels and Machines. Precision Instruments are required for calibration of field and machine control electronics. These are also required by the R&D engineer for design and development of new products and trying out new concepts.

    Test and Measurement

    Test Measurement and Test jigs - delabs

    In Production testing, Production Engineering, Quality Assurance QA-QC etc. You need to build Test Jigs, Configure Automated Testing depending on the size of project or budget allocated; yet it has to be made flexible, scalable and modular. These require instruments or blocks that can be adapted and reconfigured or even interface with a computing network for automated testing, reporting and analysis.

    Special Electronics come with every tool or gadget these days, A Slide calipers has a LCD display, Digital Readouts on mechanical instruments can help measure even sub-microns easily. Analytical and Chemical Instrumentation is another specialized niche. Then we have medical instrumentation which is more demanding in quality and requires sensors that are small, very sensitive and safe.
    Instrumentation goes into all these and beyond. The day we find water on mars, It is only because of a precision instrument at the helm of things.

    These are basic measuring circuits you can build for your home lab. I have documented a lab DMM i had built for my use many years ago. the circuits may have errors, build it only if you understand.

    Sunday, September 07, 2014

    Preset Digital BCD Counter

    See a Tutor Digital up down BCD counter that will help you take the first step in digital electronics.

    Screenshot of widget

    Preset Digital BCD Counter

    Preset Digital BCD Counter xml use iframe part for your Webpage or Blog.

    Counter Lab - The Counter can be tested by clicking the buttons given below, Watch the LEDs and seven segment display. Inc, Dec, and Set buttons are momentary acting and Clk Button is latching type. The Dip Switch in the Left also can be set by clicking on each of them, watch the switch and LEDs after a click.

    a. Set the DIP Switch as you like and then Press the Set button. Now you will see the BCD value in the yellow LEDs named 4029 output. The Decimal value will be seen in the seven segment Display. Now try for different dip switch settings and see the BCD LEDs and Decimal output.

    b. Now Press The Inc and Dec pushbuttons and See the corresponding green LEDs which indicate the state of the Nand gate 4093 Flip Flop. Set it to Increment up-count or Decrement which is down-count.

    c. Now Click the Clk - clock or count button, the switch will latch, press it again to release. If you toggle it once the counter will get a single pulse and it will count it, see the BCD and decimal displays. Now you turn it on and leave it, the counter will keep counting one per second till you turn it off, the clock nand gate is wired to be an oscillator.

    Read More

    hyperphysics - binary counter and 7 Segment LED Counter

    Friday, September 05, 2014

    Audio Music Player - User Interface Development

    A Javascript and CSS based Web Gadget that also uses Ajax like controls. A Dynamic or Active GUI for the First time in Interface History.  Interaction Design, Product Design, UI/UX - 2002-2006

    Audio Music Player - User Interface Development

    Audio Music player Gadget, demo, Made with html and javascript. Plays short midi, mp3 and real media rm ram files with browser plugins. PSV playlist, PSV podcast.

    Music Player Gadget, Plays small midi, mp3 and real media tunes, Three Skins, Stores 99 Tracks URL and Title,

    Studying the code will also help you learn about Cookies and Database using PSV. Pipe Seperated Values. This gadget can also Backup and Restore A PSV Text Database of a Playlist.

    The source code can be seen here audio-music-player

    See the Screens above using a Dynamic Active Interface that means the Interface Real Estate can be very Small like a Handheld or Tablet.

    This experiment was done as i found that the Remote Controls and Mobile Phones in the Nineties and Early 2000 were difficult and stressful for me to use. This made me think of a Interface without menus but wizard like using a small but interactive interface area.

    Wednesday, September 03, 2014

    LED Running lights CD4017

    This is a Gadget Tutorial for this Article LED Running lights CD4017.

    This Demo shows LM555 running a CD4017 Counter to drive Ten Leds sequentially. Red Button Powers LED Running Lights, 555 Clock is counted by CD4017. Adjust R2, See ToolTips.

    Screenshot of gadget

    LED Running lights CD4017

    LED Running lights xml gadget Code Use iframe part to integrate into any Blog or Webpage.

    Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off, i have put a new battery and did the wiring for you. The Red LED will flash according to the state of the 555 output at pin 3. The decade counter-divider CD4017 has 10 outputs, for every low to high transition, rising edge, the counter advances one LED. After going one full circle the the first LED lights again and it goes on.....

    Wednesday, August 13, 2014

    Analog Electronic Circuit Design

    The very first designs that came about were analog designs, a Vacuum Tube amplifier is an example. Analog is the representation of data or physical parameter in an accurate and precise decimal number like + 72.182 mV. The greater the resolution required, the more demanding is the design for achieving high accuracy and low drift. Digital circuits have only two voltage levels, high and low, the third state of floating, Hi-Z or high impedance is only for multiplexing or sharing a bus. This is done so that devices dont drive into each other and it is also used in external port drivers.

    As an analogy, see the conventional water tap as an analog control, an electric light ON-OFF switch as a digital control.

    Bob Pease - Analog Guru

    Among the semiconductor products Bob designed are temperature-voltage frequency converters used in groundbreaking medical research expeditions to Mt. Everest in the 1980s. He also designed a seismic pre-amplifier chip used to measure lunar ground tremors in the US Apollo moon landing missions. Among his more memorable designs are the LM331 voltage to frequency converter and the LM337 adjustable voltage regulator. - Remembering Bob Pease

    Bob Pease - Analog Guru

    Even in digital, going from a low level say 0V to a high level say 5V is not instantaneous, the side of the square wave or the rising edge is not as straight as it looks. On zooming only the edge, you see that it is also an analog phenomena. The 'square wave' itself appears to be a summation of many sine waves, 'harmonics'. This is because nature is analog, the sine wave is analog, the movements of the planets or even the spin of electrons in an atom too.

    After the handheld Abacus calculator (low-power, durable, bio-degradable), Mechanical and electro-mechanical computers were made and studied, The very first electronic computers were Analog Computers using an opamp as a building block.

    Then came huge Digital Computers, Later LSI and other Microelectronic Innovations have precipitated handheld computers.

    Have a look at Op Amp Applications Handbook

    The Rising edge of the square wave depends on the Transient Response of the devices, the slew rate and bandwidth too. Fast Op-Amps are required for many applications, in switching and also AC amplification. Beyond that, study goes into Power Electronics and RF-Microwave which are specialized extensions of Analog. Similarly study of Digital Circuits extends into Computers.

    Analog Design and Circuits

    Analog Circuits Instrumentation
    Circuits in Above
    Updated Aug-14
    Anantha Narayan

    Saturday, August 09, 2014

    Astable Multivibrator with 555

    This is a demo of the popular 555 timer. you can try out the project on this page by a javascript simulation.Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off. The 555 can source (LED2) or Sink (LED1) upto 200mA.

    It can even drive a small motor or lamp with diodes added to protect from inductive kickback.Vary Ra, Rb and Ct with the controls given and see the change of frequency, period and duty cycle.

    Astable Multivibrator with 555 

    This is a tutorial with calculator to help learn the application of 555 which is a very rare chip innovation. It is simple, versatile, flexible and programmable (by tweaking of pots).

    Astable Multivibrato xml code

    If you are starting with electronics, this is the first step. So do it now ! Do-It-Yourself.
    Screenshot of Astable 555 Timer Flasher

    Astable Multivibrator with 555

    Thursday, August 07, 2014

    Mooshimeter - Smartphone DMM

    Measure 600V and 10A with 24 bit resolution through 50 meters of space and 6 months of time

    "A wired meter forces you to get up close and personal with what you are measuring. This can be a mild inconvenience or downright dangerous. The wireless link provides you the freedom in your measurements..."

    Mooshimeter - Smartphone DMM

    The Mooshimeter makes multi-channel measurements possible in situations that are too fast, too slow, too sensitive or too dangerous to use a traditional multimeter. A SmartPhone with an App does the job in Tandem with the Measurement Hardware Box with the Probes.

    Mooshimeter - Smartphone DMM

    (Please always use external shunts, current transformers, sensors, attenuators to measure High Energy Parameters - means High Volatge, High Current, High Frequency or a combination of them. - ananth delabs)

    Specifications Include
    • Up to 600V, DC or peak AC 
    • Better than 0.5% accuracy DC
    • Better than 1.0% accuracy AC 
    • 10 Megaohm input impedance
    • 1% accuracy over 20 Ohms – 20 Megaohms
    • 8kHz dual simultaneous sampling
    • Up to 10 Amps 1% accuracy
    • Bluetooth Low Energy Radio

    Wednesday, August 06, 2014

    Philips - Tech Innovator and Inventor

    Royal Philips Electronics of the Netherlands is a global leader in healthcare, lifestyle and technology, delivering products, services and solutions through the brand promise of "sense and simplicity".

    Philips - Tech Innovator and Inventor

    The company was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips, a maternal cousin of Karl Marx, in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Its first products were light bulbs 'and other electrotechnical equipment'. Its first factory remains as a museum. Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. - Wikipedia

    Vintage Philips Tape Recorder Transistor based

    (I have fixed some of these decades ago, if i remember right, it had only transistors, no chips. I am not sure if it was only germanium transistors, but i used both silicon and germanium devices to repair - ananth)

    Vintage Philips Tape Recorder Transistor based

    Discover everything you need to know about the LED phenomenon. What is a LED? How does it work? Learn about the LED basics

    Philips - Tech Innovator and Inventor
    From Components and Materials - Industrial Electronics and Instruments

    Tuesday, August 05, 2014

    General Electric Company - GE

    In 1876, Thomas Alva Edison opened a new laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Out of the laboratory came arguably the most famous invention of all-a practical incandescent electric lamp. By 1890, Edison had organized his various businesses into the "Edison General Electric Company."

    General Electric Company - GE

    General Electric 40W light bulb.

    General Electric 40W light bulb.

    "Charles Proteus Steinmetz, already a distinguished industrial scientist, was hard at work as GE's chief consulting engineer. After years of persuasion, Steinmetz convinced the GE leadership that the company would need a research laboratory to maintain its edge in lighting and electricity and also finding new areas to grow." - Heritage of Research

    Charles Proteus Steinmetz

    Charles Proteus Steinmetz He made ground-breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enabled engineers to better design electric motors for use in industry.

    Friday, August 01, 2014

    Electronic Random Decision Maker

    Running LED, Random Results, Decade Counter and Clock. Weigh the Pros-n-Cons, Take a Balanced Decision.

    Electronic Random Decision Maker - Live Weblet

    See Code gadgets-widgets. This can be built with one 555 timer and a CD4017. See Fun with LEDs but use the pin 5 to connect to a cap you charge with a pushbutton or gate like CD4093 to turn off 555 using pin 4 after a cap discharges. This may simulate a random.

    Electronic Random Decision Maker xml code

    Add only the iframe code to your Page or blog. The xml file works with google sites.

    ScreenShot

    Electronic Random Decision Maker

    Tuesday, July 08, 2014

    Electronic organ and Metronome

    This is a Beat Box Gadget, Music Companion, Set Sequence of Sounds, Set Tempo and Play a Rhythm.  You will need to get flash player if the music does not play. When Metronome page has loaded, then you will hear a small beat, that means the gadget is loaded. Or Else reload, refresh or visit gadget page again.

    Electronic organ and Metronome

    A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats-per-minute (BPM) for the performance of musical compositions. It is an invaluable practice tool for musicians that goes back hundreds of years.

    Idea For Coders is the UI, the Switches, the Scale Sliders, The Flashing LEDs, the compact coding method. The Inline Help, The debug annunciation window (div slot on top) is used for incremental coding, also the Status Indicator while operating this gadget. This slot also shows inline mini-help.

    This widget may be a decade old now but has helped many design the UI for gadgets that you see in touchscreen gadgets. These widget creations of mine on this blog have changed the way people think about usability of devices with limited user-interface area.

    Like i said before it is easier to operate a Tap than to key in some value and click a menu command before the menu slips away from from your mouse pointer. It was sheer torture, now it is bliss.

    Think Euro-Controls' means like a Water Tap or Opening a Box or Sliding the window, think Human.

    Electronic organ and Metronome

    audio-visual-metronome project page

    Audio Visual Metronome xml code Use the iframe part to create a widget in your page or blog

    Monday, July 07, 2014

    Grundig AG - Consumer Electronics

    Grundig AG is a German manufacturer of consumer electronics for home entertainment. Max Grundig established the company in Nuremberg in 1945, shortly after World War II.

    Grundig AG - Consumer Electronics

    The history of the company began in 1930 with the establishment of a store named Fuerth, Grundig & Wurzer (RVF), which sold radios. After World War II Max Grundig recognized the need in Germany for radios and in 1947 produced a kit, while a factory and administration centre were under construction at Fürth.

    Grundig Tonbandkoffer TK 42 - 1962

    Grundig Tonbandkoffer TK 42 - 1962

    Grundig History

    "1952: On the 25th of December, the first television channel starts up in Germany. This means that television receivers also have to be produced. After intensive research, Grundig launches the FS 080 onto the market.

     In the same year the first portable tape recorder Reporter 500 L is created. Technical data: speed 19 cm/sec, frequency conversion 50 Hz to 10 kHz, built-in amplifier and speaker."

    Grundig AG - Wikipedia 

    The Satellit 750’s line-in socket allows you to connect an MP3 player for even more listening options, while the line-out socket allows you to transfer broadcasts to another device. The LCD display also offers a clock and two alarm timers.

    Grundig Satellit 750—Setting the Shortwave Standard

    Grundig Satellit 750—Setting the Shortwave Standard

    Eton Corporation  - Speakers and sound systems. Specializes in making AM/FM Shortwave, Emergency Hand-Crank, Solar-powered and Satellite radios under the Eton, Grundig and American Red Cross names.

    Thursday, July 03, 2014

    RGB Color Mixer Gadget

    This is a HTML RGB color mixer, I was inspired by CPick and RGB Mixer. It helps you get the shade of color you want for a Webpage in HTML Hex Code or for a Program GUI that you are designing in RGB weights.

    RGB Color Mixer Gadget

    Color Mixer xml code

    Use the iframe part for pages and blogs. The xml file is for the google sites widget.

    For Children it is fun to play with and understand what Black, Grey, Brown, White are made of and How Cyan-Magenta-Yellow and other Fine Shades can be synthesized by just playing with the three Sliders.

    color-mixer - Project Page

    Thursday, June 19, 2014

    Digital Circuits - PDF Circuits - delabs

    These circuits are based on CD40xx Chips and other. You can use 74HCT or any other series that is available. use one family for a particular project. These were used nearly two decades ago. Use it for learning, glue logic or to interface your uC designs to external devices. Do not make only Logic based designs like some below. It would be better to use a uC, CPLD or FPGA if you are building a complex gadget Basic Digital Circuits

    Digital Circuits - PDF Circuits - delabs

    Digital Circuits - delabs

    LM331 is a Voltage-to-Frequency Converters and 74C926 is a 4 Digit Counter. The first part of the circuit converts the amplified DC analog value from a shunt to pulses. The Second counts the pulses and Displays it on a Seven segment LED display.

    Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks
    • Sequential Timer CD40xx
    • Sequential Timer 7217
    • Six Digit preset counter CD4518
    • Analog timer CD4541
    • Quad Presettable Timers
    • Digital Comparator 74HC85
    • Sequential Timer/counter 7217 with RAM
    • CD4060 and CD4020 based long duration timer.
    • Digital Timer Clock With Preset using Thumbwheel switch.
    • 1 Hz or 1 pps crystal clock using CD4060 and 32768 Hz Crystal
    Mixed and Interface Circuits
    • Optical Proximity Switch
    • Profile Controller
    • Toaster timer 555
    • Quad analog input switch logic
    • Optical switch for water tap using LM555 and LM567
    • Diff input DS8830 to TTL convertor
    • Phase lock loop using 4046
    • Am hour meter for battery chargers or electroplating equipment. 74C926

    Saturday, June 14, 2014

    Electronic Shift Monitor

    The Security Guard duty monitor below, shown in eight circuits at Digital Circuits - 1 are examples of logic circuits, i have converted them from the DOS Orcad to Orcad 9 and corrected some errors a few years back.

    Electronic Shift Monitor - delabs

    These circuits can be used for looking at the logic blocks or to learn. This product was built and sold to some firms many years back. Now these designs are best done with a PIC or Atmel chip. Here is the user manual

    Electronic Shift Monitor ESM9000

    This circuit was done with CMOS CD40xx type of ICs. A RAM was used to store the Day/Time LED Status.

    This was custom made for a bank, it was to monitor the Alertness of the Security Guard. Periodically the Unit will Buzz and Flash and the Security Guard has to press a  Big Button to indicate he is awake, alert, agile and around the Unit.

    In the Morning the Bank Manager will see the Security Status LEDs. All Green means fine, few Red LEDs means the Guard was sleeping or gone away from some times. All Red means Security Guard is missing. :-)

    Made quite some numbers but was not profitable and soon similar lower cost clones appeared.

    Wednesday, June 11, 2014

    Digital Dice Cubes

    Digital Die Cube Toy, Click the Dice Cube, Wait, It will Display a Random Result, A random generation for rolling and one for showing value. Electronics Dice gadgets we can build listed below.

    Project Page - digital-dice

    Screenshot of widget - Live Dual Digital Dice

    Digital Dice Cubes

    Digital Dice Cubes xml code

    The xml file is for Google Sites and use only the iframe part for any webpage or blog.

    Projects that help you make Real Electronic Dice

    Dice Project
    The 555 astable circuit provides clock pulses at about 5kHz for the 4017 counter which has ten outputs (Q0 to Q9). Each output becomes high in turn as the clock pulses are received.

    Electronic Die Built using a PIC16F84
    When the die first starts after power is applied it initialise the device and then goes to sleep until the SW1 'roll' button is pressed. While the button is pressed the display is blank. On releasing the button the LEDs 'spin' for about 5 seconds....

    Electronic Dice Project
    The 555 timer IC is connected for Astable Operation, the clock pulses are fed to the 4017 IC via the 10K resistor. The 4017 is a 10 stage counter, output 6 (pin 5) is connected to RESET (pin 15), thus giving us a 6 stage counter ,...

    Thou shalt not gamble or pledge.  - The Elektrick Jedi  - 1567

    Monday, June 09, 2014

    Simple Hourglass Clock Gadget

    Simple Hourglass Clock, Track Time Progress, Shows Time, Date, Weekday and Week of Year. Time flies but the Hourglass Clock helps you keep a watch on the endless flow of time. This fights procrastination, then the project will be done in time. There Aint No time left, Act Now. Finish the Box.

    Simple Hourglass Clock - Live Widget

    Widget Screenshot

     Hourglass Clock Gadget

    Hourglass Clock Gadget Code
    use only the iframe part for html pages and blog widgets. The xml is for google sites.


    Wednesday, May 14, 2014

    Basic Electrical Circuits

    Electrical Engineering encompasses Everything in Electronics. Communications, Computers etc. are further specializations of Electronics. So it is best to Identify Electrical Circuits with Electrical Designs which excludes Active Devices. It can include Electronic Products in the form of wireable modules.
    So House and Factory wiring, Appliances like Ovens, Toasters, Power Generation and management; all these are electrical. Motors, Generators, Connectors, Relays, Contacters and Circuit Breakers are Electrical Components.

    See a diagram i made for a Sequential Process Control Unit, custom built for Vacuum Impregnation;

    Sequential Process Control - Vacuum Impregnation

    A Radio or Power Inverter is Electronic. When an Inverter or Electronic AC-DC Motor Drive is used in a Control panel or Power Supply system, that integration is shown as an Electrical Circuit. I feel Simple Consumer Electronic Circuits using Diodes, Transistors, SCR, Capacitors and Resistors can also be taken under electrical circuits; when they are used in Mains-Power or Household Appliances. Solar Energy related circuits also can be studied under Electrical Power Circuits.

    In Electronics RF-Microwave and Communications is a specialization area, Computer Hardware, Software, Internet form another major domain. Networking and Wireless data communication overlaps both the above.

    Power Electronics and Instrumentation are fundamental domains needed for many. Industrial Automation with Process Control Instrumentation is unique, but is supported by the fundamental domains. Many more finer areas like Robotics and Medical Electronics have a much sharper focus.

    Basic Electrical Circuits - delabs

    Anantha Narayan

    Three Point Preset Counter

    This is a prototype of a Preset Counter. It is built with ICM7217. The cabinet is ABS Plastic DIN 96-96. The Panel is Engraved on Acrylic. I don't remember for which application it was used. It has three thumbwheel settings, when the proximity switch counts upto the set-value, the corresponding relay turns ON, with a State Indicating LED on front panel.

    Three Point Preset Counter

    These can be configured sequentially or to work synchronously, this depends on what customer wants. Both modes may give the same result. In sequential operation, Some of these counters-timers may need to wait for an external trigger or feedback from a limit switch or another process like pressure alarm. Then more Input options may have to be provided.

    Counters, timers, analog-process and its interconnectivity makes up the various process loops or chain-reactions in Machine control. The various types of sensors for measurement and feedback of analog and event parameters, monitor the mechanical system and communicate the data to the process instruments. The Actuators like Drives, Solenoids, Pumps, Valves and Heaters act in accordance to the commands of the control system. This regulates and manages the process or machine to deliver consistent and repeatable yield of the end product.

    Read More here - Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks

    Monday, May 12, 2014

    Digital Timers Counters and Clocks

    Timers and Counters along with Analog Process Controllers formed the front end of Industrial Automation. Even today automation systems and control panels use analog timers and electromechanical counters. These are Indispensable. Analog + Digital combination controllers came next which were little bigger and offered better stability. They had thumbwheel switches as user interface in place of potentiometers.

    Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks

    uP based Systems with chips like 8085 came after that, they consumed more power and were big in size. The coming of Cmos uC like 80C31 made Process Instrumentation Small and SMD made even 48 X 48 DIN sizes possible. Now Analog and uC based designs are used in different applications. Digital Hybrids and uP instruments are not used as they were Transient-Technology Methods.

    Digital and Logic Circuits Basics

    You can start learning digital circuits by learning the operation of logic gates, see an interactive gadget tutor Logic Gates.

    Then you can test the basics with these tutor gadgets
    Circuits FAQ Related to Digital Circuits

    Friday, May 09, 2014

    Aircraft Dashboard Clock Mimic Gadget

    Digital Clock with 24 hour Military Time Format, Aircraft Dashboard Chronometer Like Looks, Date, Time, Weekday and Week of Year. Clock.

    Flight Clock - An Aircraft Cockpit Dashboard clock simulation (live widget)

    ScreenShot of Widget

    Aircraft Dashboard Clock Mimic Gadget

    Gadget, looks like a Clock in Cockpit Dashboard. It is a Mimic of A Flight Chronometer Instrument. It shows Time and Date close to Military Time-Date format. It also has week number and weekday display.

    Project Page - avionics-chronometer

    Aircraft Clock xml code

    Add this Code to your Page or Blog

    Saturday, May 03, 2014

    Digital Alarm Clock Gadget

    An Alarm Clock with Musical Alarms. This Web Widget was for the iGoogle Homepage, A Web-page or even a blog.  It was an Experiment in User Interface in small a small Facia or Front Panel.

    You can set Five Alarms with Ten Selectable Musical Sounds and a small Text memo.- 2005

    Digital Alarm Clock Gadget

    The Project Page digital-alarm-clock

    The simulation is as close as possible to a uC based Clock which you could build, The GUI is more like a electronic gadget than a Software Application. That should charge you to build your Alarm Clock today.

    Eco Green Alarm Clock with Flash Sound

    Get news Eco Version above, This page is of the Older Version of Digital Alarm Clock. The reason this is old is it sound integration is not very good.

    Digital Alarm Clock Web Gadget with Musical Alarms

    Usability and Ergonomics Research

    This gadget has established usability problems. The were intended and demonstrated. It was an attempt to show the limits and strain associated with push button and key controls to operate an electronic equipment.

    Many Apps, Appliance and Gizmos are constrained with a small control interface size, these pose a challenge for the User Interface design. I myself have problems with the keyboard phones and remote control. This can be seen even in the puzzling Monitor OSD controls in comparison to the easy analog Pot controls of old CGA/EGA Monitors.

    Controls should be easy like the water tap or power switch. Not like a Puzzle, Maze or Quiz.

    Technology needs to make things simple. Keep controls minimum and Human Friendly means (analog). A human Being is a "Real Time Analog Machine". This gadget is a continuing experiment in ergonomics.

    Tuesday, April 22, 2014

    Reliability in Axial and Radial Plastic Capacitors

    The Axial capacitors like Metalized Polypropylene MPP are more reliable in comparison of their radial counterparts of same voltage rating.

    Also note 440V AC Continuous rating reads and translates differently than 630V DC Max. Overrating is an important step in reliability for engineers.

    High Energy Circuits

    Radial plastic caps, in mass production, due to various inconsistencies in production or quality measurement, are not recommended for high voltage unless its is a Manufacturer known for long term reliability and quality track record.

    Reliability in Axial and Radial Plastic Capacitors

    The radial caps when being wound, stretches the film/dielectric or weakens the dielectric at some areas as the turn is sharp, top/bot. This is possible unless the winding machine relaxes strain around the turns. In a Axial that may not be a problem as the film has more uniform stretch. The other reason could be that the Film is wrapped a little on corners or compressed on epoxy impregnation. It could also be low quality non-uniform PP material.

    Power Electronics & Solar Energy

    Components Manufacturers have to spruce up a Raw-Material and Component Quality, not by red-tape but by actually improving the manufacturing and procurement processes, as the quantities involved are huge.

    Friday, April 18, 2014

    Control Interface to PC Ports

    PC based Instrumentation is easy to implement using tools and cards of National Instruments - Test and Measurement. Most instruments can communicate with PC on the GPIB interface.

    You can start by learning to use the parallel port and serial port. MIDI-Game port also has enough to help you start, learn computer interfacing at home. Try a small easy experiment RS-232 Powered Temperature Sensor.

    Control Interface to PC Ports

    This can get you started too. The few examples above show an instrumentation - Logic Analyzer 'Like' interface and a relay-display driver circuit. They are examples i tried for students to try out and learn.

    Control Interface to PC Ports.
    Project Source - virtual-instrumentation - Examples of Computer Interface to Instruments

    Tuesday, April 15, 2014

    QCRTGraph Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android

    You can develop Android Virtual Instruments with these components. You could integrate scrolling graphs, meters, bar graphs, gauges, annunciators, dynamic text, and UI controls to Android/Java based applications.

    QCRTGraph Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android 

    The Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android library, entirely written using Java for the Android platform, is for developers who want to add sophisticated real-time graphics to their Android applications.

    The software integrates the QCChart2D charting software with real-time data structures and specialized rendering routines.

    QCRTGraph Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android

    Process Variable and Alarms - Real-time data is stored in RTProcessVar classes. The RTProcessVar class is designed to represent a single process variable, complete with limit values, an unlimited number of high and low alarms, historical data storage, and descriptive strings for use in displays.

    Panel Meter Indicators - The RTPanelMeter derived classes are special cases of the single value indicator classes that are used throughout the software to display real-time data in a text format. Panel meters are available for numeric values, string values, time/date values and alarm values.

    Alarm Indicators - Alarm indicators are used to display alarm lines, symbols and fill areas for the RTProcessVar objects associated with the single value and multiple value indicator classes.

    Quinn-Curtis is a leading supplier of real-time graphics tools software, for Windows, .Net, and Java platforms.

    Quinn-Curtis
    18 Hearthstone Dr., Medfield, MA 02052 USA

    Saturday, April 12, 2014

    Pin Note Web Gadget

    This is a Tiny memo Pad that will have Sticky Notes on Webpage, saves in cookies. This Web Gadget was for the Google Homepage, Web-page or blog. The project page and the source is at pin-notes.

    The inspiration for this has been Stickies. Which i have been using for some time.Add to your Page or Blog - Pin Notes xml code - you need to use only the iframe part.

    Screenshot of Gadget

    Pin Note Web Gadget

    Note - This is toy or fun gadget not for serious note taking, it is more an example of css-dhtml-js for study or learning.

    24 March 2010 - Data Freedom in PSV, Pipe Separated like | and ||. Now you can move to a competing Notes Service Provider if you feel our interface or features are not just right. 

    Development

    This was later enhanced to the Jot a Note gadget. Jot a Note then became Jot Desktop. Now i have made a app site called iDesk a Online Desktop .

    Saturday, April 05, 2014

    Digital Seven Segment Clock Gadget

    This Gadget is to Inspire you or remind you of the traditional Digital Clock. The javascript is as close as possible to a c program that you could write for a PIC processor, So then try and make a gadget which is 3D, using PIC or 8051.

    ScreenShot

    Digital Seven Segment Clock Gadget

    Digital Clock Web Gadget for Date and Time

    The Live Widget can be seen here.

    This Web Gadget is for the Google Homepage, Web-page or blog. It has seven segment display, similar to traditional Digital Clocks in the dashboard. It will also indicate the date and week. This Project includes a Simple Hourglass Clock Gadget on the same code.

    Digital Clock Gadget xml code

    This Gadget just displays the Time as shown on the computer. To ensure it is accurate : The small clock battery must be ok, The Periodic Sync with Atomic Server has to be enabled on your PC.

    seven-segment-digital-clock The Project Page

    Tuesday, March 18, 2014

    LED Lighting - The Future is Here

    LED Lighting is more important than you think it is. Start Using Alternative Energy, like Wind Power and Solar, Tidal and even Magmatic.

    LED Lighting at Wikipedia

    On September 24, 2009 the DOE announced that Philips Lighting North America was the first to submit lamps in the category to replace the standard 60 W A-19 "Edison screw fixture" light bulb, with a design based on their earlier "EnduraLED" consumer product.

    LED Lighting - The Future is Here

    On August 3, 2011, DOE awarded the prize in the 60 W replacement category to Philips bulb after 18 months of extensive testing. The 10-W, 900-lumen Philips bulb was made available to consumers in April 2012.

    The same day, CREE demonstrated a prototype lamp producing 1330 lumens with a mere 8.7 W of input power. While the CREE lamp has not undergone DOE reliability testing and no commercial release date was promised, it is an indication that the "21st Century Lamp" performance levels may soon be within reach of commercial products.

    Highly efficient LED Bulb Driver - Infineon

    The highly efficient dimmable LED driver system utilizing ICL8001G sets a new Benchmark with respect to integration, performance, features and total system cost. ICL8001G employs quasi-resonant operation modes with integrated power factor control for off-line residential LED lighting applications in particular 40W / 60W / 100W incandescent bulb replacements.

    Highly efficient LED Bulb Driver - Infineon

    Infineon ICL8001G - Bulb Driver

    The EVAL-LED-ICL8001G-Bulb02 demonstrates the single-stage flyback and PFC controller ICL8001G in an LED  Bulb application. Its quasiresonant operation mode, primary side control, integrated PFC and phase-cut dimming  control makes it the best in class system solution for dimmable LED bulbs.