Monday, September 15, 2014

Circuits using only discrete devices

Here are circuits made of Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors which are passive components. Crystals, Thermistors, Varistors, Variable Passive RLC are also Passive Parts.

Circuits using only discrete devices

Zeners, Diodes, NPN-PNP Transistors, FET, MOSFET, SCR, Triacs are all discrete active devices. ICs and Hybrid Modules are made of many discrete and passive components. In the Integrated Circuits or ASICs, all parts even passives are derived on the Silicon Wafer. In Hybrid Modules the construction uses SMD or Tiny Chip components interconnected in a small ceramic PCB and Hermetically Sealed if needed.

Parts or Components in Electronics

Parts like Switches, Connectors, Relays and PCBs are ElectroMechanical parts. Nuts, Bolts, Screws, Cabinets and enclosures are Mechanical parts.

For a Systems Integrator or Control Panel Designer, the Timers, Controllers, PLC which are Electronic Products become Components or Modules along with Contacters, Current Transformers, AC-DC Drives etc.

Saturday, September 13, 2014

Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

Many times we cannot carry big or expensive test instruments to the field, so we have to have a troubleshooting tool kit. Continuity testers, Logic Probes, DMM, Clamp Meters etc.. You can troubleshoot and repair Electronic Equipment easily with Meters and Continuity Tester

It also is sometimes required to build a quick jig or fixture with electronics to troubleshoot, simulate a problem or to test the reliability or aging of components and systems. Here you need to be cost effective, fast and innovative; and build a simple system with available, affordable or procurable resources. Hence a bit of circuit design, firmware and software are essential skills for production engineering.

This was designed, keeping in mind, that sometimes we have few components available and we could be flat broke. Even that you could not carry your DMM somewhere, but you have to make some instrument for a quick need with what is available. If you are out of cash or feel like Robinson Crusoe, then this is a low cost measurement system. I designed it to practice on eagle, i am not sure how this circuit may work, it is not tested . But i have built, repaired and designed many DMMs. So there is a fair chance, parts of it may work :~)

IC3 LM555 is to generate -5V from 9V. That reminds me of a story, In 1986 while i was studying BE electronics i got a chance to work part-time in a company that sold-serviced imported instruments, it was called trans-marketing. They were the agents for Racal-Dana, Genrad, Data I/O and so many more. Here i came across a Book called CMOS Hot Ideas of Intersil. I had a chance to observe, build and learn some things here. The ICL7107 circuit was the most fascinating, I also read the books of National Semiconductor here.

Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

In those days small firms used to make DPM's digital panel meters with 7107. In 1987 when i got a oppurtunity to design a DPM for a firm, I put the 555 clock in place CD4009 clock shown in intersil, to derive the -5.

Potentiometer Dial GIF for above circuit to be used to make a hand-held avo-meter is here.

Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

Small Electronic Testing Tools - Analog Dial AVO Amps-Volts-Ohms meter

Test Measurement and Test jigs

Test Tools are needed for Troubleshooting and Repairing Electronic Gadgets, Equipment, Electrical Panels and Machines. Precision Instruments are required for calibration of field and machine control electronics. These are also required by the R&D engineer for design and development of new products and trying out new concepts.

Test and Measurement

Test Measurement and Test jigs - delabs

In Production testing, Production Engineering, Quality Assurance QA-QC etc. You need to build Test Jigs, Configure Automated Testing depending on the size of project or budget allocated; yet it has to be made flexible, scalable and modular. These require instruments or blocks that can be adapted and reconfigured or even interface with a computing network for automated testing, reporting and analysis.

Special Electronics come with every tool or gadget these days, A Slide calipers has a LCD display, Digital Readouts on mechanical instruments can help measure even sub-microns easily. Analytical and Chemical Instrumentation is another specialized niche. Then we have medical instrumentation which is more demanding in quality and requires sensors that are small, very sensitive and safe.
Instrumentation goes into all these and beyond. The day we find water on mars, It is only because of a precision instrument at the helm of things.

These are basic measuring circuits you can build for your home lab. I have documented a lab DMM i had built for my use many years ago. the circuits may have errors, build it only if you understand.

Sunday, September 07, 2014

Preset Digital BCD Counter

See a Tutor Digital up down BCD counter that will help you take the first step in digital electronics.

Screenshot of widget

Preset Digital BCD Counter

Preset Digital BCD Counter xml use iframe part for your Webpage or Blog.

Counter Lab - The Counter can be tested by clicking the buttons given below, Watch the LEDs and seven segment display. Inc, Dec, and Set buttons are momentary acting and Clk Button is latching type. The Dip Switch in the Left also can be set by clicking on each of them, watch the switch and LEDs after a click.

a. Set the DIP Switch as you like and then Press the Set button. Now you will see the BCD value in the yellow LEDs named 4029 output. The Decimal value will be seen in the seven segment Display. Now try for different dip switch settings and see the BCD LEDs and Decimal output.

b. Now Press The Inc and Dec pushbuttons and See the corresponding green LEDs which indicate the state of the Nand gate 4093 Flip Flop. Set it to Increment up-count or Decrement which is down-count.

c. Now Click the Clk - clock or count button, the switch will latch, press it again to release. If you toggle it once the counter will get a single pulse and it will count it, see the BCD and decimal displays. Now you turn it on and leave it, the counter will keep counting one per second till you turn it off, the clock nand gate is wired to be an oscillator.

Read More

hyperphysics - binary counter and 7 Segment LED Counter

Friday, September 05, 2014

Audio Music Player - User Interface Development

A Javascript and CSS based Web Gadget that also uses Ajax like controls. A Dynamic or Active GUI for the First time in Interface History.  Interaction Design, Product Design, UI/UX - 2002-2006

Audio Music Player - User Interface Development

Audio Music player Gadget, demo, Made with html and javascript. Plays short midi, mp3 and real media rm ram files with browser plugins. PSV playlist, PSV podcast.

Music Player Gadget, Plays small midi, mp3 and real media tunes, Three Skins, Stores 99 Tracks URL and Title,

Studying the code will also help you learn about Cookies and Database using PSV. Pipe Seperated Values. This gadget can also Backup and Restore A PSV Text Database of a Playlist.

The source code can be seen here audio-music-player

See the Screens above using a Dynamic Active Interface that means the Interface Real Estate can be very Small like a Handheld or Tablet.

This experiment was done as i found that the Remote Controls and Mobile Phones in the Nineties and Early 2000 were difficult and stressful for me to use. This made me think of a Interface without menus but wizard like using a small but interactive interface area.

Wednesday, September 03, 2014

LED Running lights CD4017

This is a Gadget Tutorial for this Article LED Running lights CD4017.

This Demo shows LM555 running a CD4017 Counter to drive Ten Leds sequentially. Red Button Powers LED Running Lights, 555 Clock is counted by CD4017. Adjust R2, See ToolTips.

Screenshot of gadget

LED Running lights CD4017

LED Running lights xml gadget Code Use iframe part to integrate into any Blog or Webpage.

Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off, i have put a new battery and did the wiring for you. The Red LED will flash according to the state of the 555 output at pin 3. The decade counter-divider CD4017 has 10 outputs, for every low to high transition, rising edge, the counter advances one LED. After going one full circle the the first LED lights again and it goes on.....