Thursday, December 03, 2015

The Future Landline Phones

Early Innovations on Landline Phones were Answering Machine, Music-on-Hold and Fax Machines. Later landmines were used for BBS and then DUN (Dial up Networking) Internet. Then came the Big Freeze.

My first data experience before the internet was Delrina WinFax. It helped one of my friends get a job in Europe too. A fax machine was expensive, a Gateway 2000 modem was not. (this modem took me first online at home)

The Future Landline Phones

Cable Internet, Broadband Internet and 3G etc. have pushed the Landline phone in a corner.

I am using Internet on my Landline and it is pretty good. This may not be affordable by all, as a PC or Laptop is needed and the extra Broadband charges. This is just using the same line. My LandLine phone still is UnEvolved.

What i am trying to say is .....Add SMS at least for all Landlines with no extra monthly cost other than the SMS cost. If Possible add a means of slow File Transfer like FAX. A USB port on this device below will do.

This will help many use Data on the Telephone lines without buying a PC or Fax machine. The SMS will be a Super Hit. Voice Mail can alo be done. No Internet required. Let a affordable Android phone replace the Landline.

The most financially stressed families in the most remote locations can SMS and if possible send their JPG photo or resume over the Normal Phone Connection at only the extra cost of data transfer.

I got my a Landline a few days back, The phone was one with a LCD, It is a very nice phone with a large LCD, but i had trouble using the phone book, as i kept forgetting the sequence.

These Landline phones occupy a prominent position on the desktops of all offices. The CEO, Marketing Manager and Purchasing Officer; or even at the Canteen, we see these phones. The potential for marketing and advertising is good in these, as they are still popular in the office environment. A firm can show its flash presentation or a product catalog, when a customer waits for the despatch details of a product he ordered.

A Landline Phone also may be interesting with a touch screen and built in web browser. This phone can also have the option of WiMax, in areas where it is available.

This was posted around 2007-8 in a Blog Nomadic Computing and later in delabs Design Devices.

Thursday, November 19, 2015

Hitachi - Engineering and Technologies

Hitachi is a highly diversified company with products and solutions in High Functional Materials & Components, Power Systems, Electronic Systems & Equipment, Automotive Systems, Digital Media...

Hitachi - Engineering and Technologies

Hitachi was founded in 1910 by electrical engineer Namihei Odaira. The company's first product was Japan's first 5-horsepower electric induction motor, initially developed for use in copper mining. Odaira's company soon became the domestic leader in electric motors and electric power industry infrastructure

Hitachi J100 adjustable and Variable frequency drive

Hitachi J100 adjustable and Variable frequency drive. Photographed by C J Cowie

Hitachi at Wikipedia 

Hitachi has contributed immensely to semiconductor and electronic manufacturing technologies.
  • 1958 Completed six-transistor miniature portable radio
  • 1959 Completed electronic computers based on transistors
  • 1966 Developed LTP processing technique for silicon transistors
  • 1978 Experimental color camera with solid-state miniature image device developed
Hitachi History

1976 Hitachi portable VTR, for Sony 1" type C; the source and take-up reels are stacked for compactness.

HITACHI 1 Zoll-C-Maschine - Video tape recorder

HITACHI 1 Zoll-C-Maschine - Video tape recorder

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Learn Analog Op-Amps Circuit Design

delabs Op-Amp Circuits (painstakingly) updated, The basic circuits and notes. some related resources in those pages too. An interactive tutor is also available.


Learn Analog Op-Amps Circuit Design
This is just a formatted-edited email thread exported from Eudora from my mailbox using the content concentrator. The circuit above was made by TF a student, This thread for circuit above has been put online to share information. The part under "From: delabs" are my writing. there may be some mistakes and broken links.

Design of a Thermocouple Amplifier.

This is in continuation of the thread called "Design of a Thermocouple Amplifier" doc00023.html which is in the same section .

Design of a ADC Interface for Microcontroller.

I need a few tips from you on Analog design in general: I have seen that a lot of ADCs have a separate AGND and DGND, but they are shorted at the chip. I believe this is required to keep the noisy digital return paths sperate from the analog return paths.

Analog Ground and Digital Ground

Monday, November 02, 2015

Clean Rooms and Electronics

Clean rooms and Dust free environment is a must for Precision Mechanical Engineering. It is not MEMS or nano sizes, even micron sizes accuracy in parts can be affected by Dust and Humidity.

In Electronics, Timepiece Manufacturing, Medical Equipment and Scientific Apparatus companies. Clan Rooms ensure long term reliability and safety of the products not to forget Precision.

EE Design Library - Electronic Product Design Resource.

Even if a Place is partially Dust free, it is better to have all objects with the least surface area. The way Motors are designed, Interiors of houses even a Machine

Clan Rooms and Electronics

You can enclose objects with many contours and unclean-able surfaces within a Spherical or Cubical Transparent Cover, this is easy for inspection and cleaning.

Dust, Oil, Sand and Humidity makes Grime. Never allow Rodents and Roaches in the Workplace they are larger than 100 microns.

Resources - Electronic Firms and Electronic Projects.

Tools and Equipment must be maintained free of rust/corrosion and exposure to brine or chemical fumes. Metal tools must be cleaned, oiled and stored in dry places when not in use.

Monday, October 26, 2015

Android OPC UA SCADA and Client

TeslaSCADA is a SCADA for accessing production and process data through smart phones and other Android devices, using the industrial communication standard – OPC Unified Architecture (UA).

Android OPC UA SCADA and Client

Quick visualization between an Android device and remotely situated industrial devices such as flow meters, compressors, tanks, artificial lift devices and more. TeslaSCADA allows the monitoring and control of automated processes to be extended to an ordinary mobile device, smart phone or tablet PC without extra development environment

Android TeslaSCADA

TeslaSCADA can be used in these industries: Home automation, Oil and gas, Water water management, Factories and production lines.Energy Control and Monitoring.

Tesla offers products and services in the field of automation industry and beyond. Based on OPC Unified Architecture technology we offer OPC UA SCADA and OPC UA Client for smart phones and Tablet PC based on Android platform.

LLC Tesla
Novosondetsky 5-27 432072 Ulyanovsk Russia

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Gadgets as Visual Interface for Process Control

Here is is gadget GUI for Industrial Process control, WebApps. The buttons make a sound and Light up internal LED lamps. Power On-Off control, Digital Timer; Start, Reset Scroll and Select are the controls.

An Image ScreenShot is here.

Digital Timer Gadget Visual Interface

Project Page programmable-digital-timer

I will first make some simple examples with this UI. Then i will try to interface the javascript with PHP-MYSQL Application. I am just Thinking Loud. This makes a Globally Distributed Process Control Possible. :~) . You can Use html-js-php-msql. You can use ajax-python-perl too.

Digital Timer Gadget Visual Interface - Live Gadget Demo

But for now, back to earth, I will just complete some more simple tutorial gadgets. This Idea of mine is Open Source, please keep it that way.

The advantage is that the industrial process or Home automation can be monitored and controlled on any computer including tablets which has a Browser. The plant automation or Home appliance can be regulated even as you travel back from factory to home. Or in any city from the Cyber Cafe. A Wireless Lan and Computer with Browser is all you need.

Press The Power on-off for a soft start, this is to prevent the inrush current from stressing the javascript components. Then it goes to a display test. The Start button can run or stop timer by toggling. The reset will Bring timer to 0000, format is min-sec.

Set by pressing select to get a marker over orange digit, Use Scroll to set number. Press Start to start timer, Start to be off to set again. The buzzer will turn on when Time elapsed matches time set. and the alarm relay trips. And a Flashing Annunciator signals end of process. Now Reset will start process again and stop flashing LED.

To use this like a regular instrument, you need a small portable hand-held computer with browser. Fix that in a Cabinet by filing or grinding it to size and wire the relays and supply. :-)

Tuesday, October 13, 2015

Reliability of Electronic Products

I have been in Product Design, Manufacturing and Marketing of Electronic Products/components. I have also been, like many of you, a customer.

It is very important that the customer gets a Reliable, Sturdy, Usable and Dependable product. This is what makes the Good Brands which in turn add to the Company Reputation and value.

The most important is the "Direct Customer Support" when a product fails or user finds it difficult to operate.  This include Prompt Product Service and Repairs. Any laxity or high-handedness or a Ping-Pong Customer Support can cause acute Brand Blindness that could even become Hereditary. Your brand can be shunned by a Family for generations and they also propagate negative marketing.

Your Product and Your Customer are like Family. Protect it and Nourish it for your own good.

- delabs 2015

The bathtub curve is widely used in reliability engineering. It describes a particular form of the hazard function which comprises three parts:

  • The first part is a decreasing failure rate, known as early failures.
  • The second part is a constant failure rate, known as random failures.
  • The third part is an increasing failure rate, known as wear-out failures.
  • The name is derived from the cross-sectional shape of a bathtub. 

Bathtub Curve - Wikipedia

Reliability of Electronic Products

More Reading

Sunday, October 11, 2015

Engineering Poetry and Heuristics

Knowledge comes in Handy at every part of your Life. Entertainment should be Edutainment. Here is a collection of comments and blurbs i wrote around 2012 - delabs

Verify Again and Again

After doing something, Verify, ask a friend to crosscheck, verify again.

Wait there is more ...

Then ask somebody who does not like you so much, to check or test it and offer critical comments.

Engineering Poetry and Heuristics

delabs design service - Circuit and product design

Otto, Manuel and Me

No these are not Modes of Operation in another tongue. I met these Gentlemen in an Online Ergonomics and Usability Hangout.

It was just Otto, Manuel and Me.

Engineering a Responsible Product

Affordable - Usable - Safe - Maintainable - Durable - Green

Green - Low Energy Consumption, Biodegradable, does not pose an Hazard to Environment, does not hurt Flora and Fauna.

Saturday, October 10, 2015

Whence Input Hence Output

If Inputs are Distorted, The Outputs are Noisy.
Even if the Amplifier is Very Good.

If Raw Materials are of Poor Quality, The Finished Goods are Defective.
Even if the Process and Machinery is State Of The Art.

If the Specifications are incomplete, The Prototype will be rejected.
Even if the Design and Tools are Perfect.


Whence Input Hence Output - delabs

EE Design Library - Electronic Product Design Resource.

2002 - delabs

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Materials and Inventory Management

The Inventory of a Firm should be Open within an Organization. Searching with a browser, Integrateable with departmental webware/intranet. With a very easy readable non-programmer friendly API.

The Search must be based on Multiple Keywords, Filters or Tags. Dormant Inventory and Parts/Equipment/Furniture not on any live project anymore, Excess Inventory and Obsoleted Parts due to Tech Advancement; should be flagged. This enables other departments to use it, consume it for Maintenance or Research projects or integrate into new designs if not-obsolete.

Components Parts Kits and Materials

If found to be valueless, damaged or worn-out by all departments and responsible engineers, then inventory should be sold or given away. The Employees can be the first customers for an inhouse Corporate Garage Sale. An un-organized, complexly-computerized and non-transparent/blocked Stores will end up in a Flea Market.

Vendor Development and Component Sourcing must be impartial and based on quality, supply consistency and price. Commitment and Collaboration with vendor is good, but only if quality is maintained. Quantities purchased should be little over the needs. Both Overstocking and Understocking can trouble Firms Capabilities.


Engineering Resources and Supplies 

The R&D should maintain its own Inventory. Similarly the Administrative Sections too should have its own Materials Store. This way cost measurements and material maintenance are more effective and simple.

Design as per Inventory

Sometimes a Spartan R&D Engineer needs to know more ...

When you design a new product, we can design it with new types of parts, but it is also important to use parts that are standard to the company's inventory, Also you need to use up the parts which have been accumulated due to a discontinued product line or a failed idea.

This way the design becomes more frugal and efficient. And the inventory valuation more accurate. It also saves the company to build a new part type stock. And finally a balance sheet which is realistic.

What is good for the firm, is good for you.

Tuesday, September 08, 2015

Basics and Instrumentation Electronics

The Basic Tutorials Section has been updated, "Basics" in an Instrumentation Viewpoint. Some Learning i had written down, Later made a Newsletter Amps-n-Volts. Now i am organizing everything into one area. More like Content Management by chewing the cud.
Digital Multi Meter - New Year Resolutions Fluke Electronics - DMM
  1. I will not drop the DMM from a height of 4 feet.
  2. I will not Test Live Powered equipment in the Ohms Mode.
  3. I shall not Measure Mains Voltage in The Current Mode.
  4. I shall get it calibrated once a year or at least once a decade.
  5. I shall not use it in High Energy Measurements.
  6. I will try my best not to give it to my best friend.
  7. I can remember Red is Positive and Black is negative.
  8. I will wear shoes and stand on a block of wood while i test.
  9. I shall not operate the rotary range switch at high speeds.
  10. I shall replace the probes-cables-connectors on wear-tear.
  11. I shall not accidentally keep the hot-iron near the DMM or leads.
  12. I shall not keep DMM on tall table and pull it with the leads.
DMM - How it Looks ... shown right is from Fluke Electronics

How To Learn Electronics :

Theory must be studied once and referred to, again and again as you do practicals. One is by building DIY projects and then modifying them. Also Repair of equipment, troubleshooting, testing and calibrating. Then you know how components behave and real life limitations. Now design and engineer a product and test it at customer site. do a pilot production and test with more clients. Now you will learn to think based on practical applications.

"with hard work and innovation you can do it ! " Solderman Talks 1702 AD

- Solderman Talks 1702 AD

Sunday, June 28, 2015

The Spice in Analog Design

Analog Designers created Spice, Analog Design Professionals are adding their experience in many commercial and free spice EDA tools. When you are creating a new demanding design, a working solution is achieved by combining workbench and simulation work.

The Spice in Analog Design

Lab Test Bench and Breadboard testing needs to be done along with analog simulation. Power and mixed signal design too, needs to be verified on board. This is more true for a new design lab or new engineers. Experienced designers will not make many mistakes as design blocks would be in their collections or in their knowledge base. It is this knowledge that can build the simulator itself, this makes the simulator as skilled as the designer but also limited to his or that firm's experience. In a full digital design, simulation does a more complete Virtual Test bench role.

A simulation tool can help you test the blocks and helps catch some design and concept errors. When you build a live breadboard prototype, some real issues facing your design can emerge.

Spice is a analog design aid and helps mixed design circuit simulation, See the Spice homepage.

SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) is a general purpose analog electronic circuit simulator. It is a powerful program that is used in IC and board-level design to check the integrity of circuit designs and to predict circuit behavior. - Wikipedia

Spice Resources

Sunday, June 21, 2015

MCS48 Code for 80C39 Microcontroller

80C39 is a Cmos Version of 8048 the one that preceded 8031-8051. MCS48 is the set for that, MCS51 is the current set.

Here is an example project for 80C39-8748-8749 microcontroller. This code was written by me, and it works. But the documentation is not complete or may have errors.

80C39-8749 MCS-48 Examples and code.

Process Controller code here 80C39 Code for MCS48 (editable spreadsheet online) or use pc80C39.zip.
The circuit for these are on this page along with other circuits.

This may be difficult to put together now. But the code and hardware is near compatible to 8051 uC. Now there are may types of ADC and uC.

The circuit of the Analog Front End was a V-F Converter

Analog Front End was a V-F Converter

This was supposed to have Analog in and Analog out. Some parts of the circuit may be in the 80C51 page. This has ramp-up and ramp-down settings for the Increment and Decrement buttons. This helps setting setpoint quickly. There is also debouncing for the pushbutton.

Friday, June 19, 2015

Intersil Hot Ideas 1983 Mixed CMOS Revolution

These helped me build Intelligent Instruments in the 80s. Intersil was with GE earlier, innovators of   advanced CMOS before anybody else. They made the smartest chips when the Microprocessors were being examined Skeptically by engineers. (At that time Microprocessors needed many support chips and consumed huge power only later CMOS uC came).

Intersil Hot Ideas - 1983

Intersil Hot Ideas - 1983

Today i found out that another company of that time called Datel is back, it was first a part of GE like Intersil then went to Murata now after decades it is back home.

"Datel was established in 1970 and has been a long time leader in providing high precision data acquisition components, including data converters, power supplies, DC-DC converters, and digital panel meters. "

Saturday, May 09, 2015

Embedded Microcontroller - delabs

Analog devices like transistors and diodes lead to opamps and analog computing. This takes more parts but with fast devices can be real time. Then came Logic and Digital Circuits, here also big systems will take too many parts. A very Old hp Logic Analyzer instrument, could be HP1607A, had more than five large PCBs, Toggle Switches and numerous 74Fxx TTL Chips. I tried to revive it, it could not be fully restored.

Embedded Microcontroller - delabs

Then came the solution the Microprocessor. Here the entire system goes into the firmware and a Hardware Tool Set in the Microprocessor made up of Logic and Math is sequentially used to perform the same operation that would require innumerable Gates in a plain hardware digital circuit. But as it performs the operations one after another, it takes time and is defined by the CPU Clock Speed.

Embedded Microcontroller - delabs

When the External RAM and EPROM and other peripheral devices moved into the main package, MicroController were born. When more external devices merged with the MicroController. It formed a nearly complete computer, this is known as the SOC.

Wednesday, May 06, 2015

Engineering the Technology Management

Sometimes even Management has to be Engineered to help it change its ways of thinking in a world that is fast changing. A Planet that is defined by the Consumer or Customer more strongly than any other factor.

Technologies should scale with Infrastructure. Buildings cannot stress the Foundations meant for. Traffic proportional to Road Width. Sync

Technology Management

Raw Materials - Components - Finished Products. The Entire Processing and Design Chain has to improve, if the final Product has to Shine.

Let us use more of our Brain than Brawn, Quality; Reliability & Safety will see a Dawn.

High Value Engineering

In Engineering High Value products are those that are a combination of Precision Mechanical + Electrical + Analog + Embedded Microcontroller.

Study and Learn ?? Examine and Experiment >> Analyze and Establish [o] Realize !!

Saturday, May 02, 2015

The Success of the LED Lamp

The White LED Lamp is a Success today, more and more firms are manufacturing them. Millions are using it and is moving forward taking over the slots once occupied by CFL Lamps.

Still Filament and other Lamps are in use, even i like it much. CFL reliability and quality has improved. Then the LED Lighting has far too many Advantages and will be the Default Lighting Product of the future. It can easily adapt to the 24V Low voltage Standard, with Solar Energy Interface too.

The Insides of a LED Bulb

The AC to DC converter can be designed in various ways. The SMPS, the CFL Lamp Driver and this Mains Bulb LED driver all belong to the same Electronic Species.

First the 230V/110V at 50Hz/60Hz mains voltage is converted to DC with a diode bridge and filter cap. Not to forget protection and EMI filter circuits made of passive components.

Then it is an Oscillator that switches at High-Frequency, chops the 200V or 300V DC, say around 200 KHz. Then this AC is Stepped-Down with a High-Frequency Ferrite Transformer. Rectify the AC and use it to drive lamps with the current limit controls. The reliability of power devices and the Isolation in the Small Ferrite Transformer determine the life and safety of the bulb.

The Insides of a LED Bulb

White LED Lighting Lamps - 2011

We moved from Warm, Soothing and Healthy Edison Filament Lamps to CFL Lamps which are Energy Efficient, Bright but harsh on the Sensitive Eyes.

Energy Efficiency is of paramount importance for this age. Then, the light should be healthy for the eyes too. Eyes are very precious too.

That is the reason we need to Switch to LED lighting. It consumes low power, more reliable than CFL and gives Excellent and Safe Lighting.

LED lighting is expensive, as the Technology is slowly gaining acceptance. Please also bear in mind that low quality and unreliable LED products will also be in the market. In time, things will get seasoned and affordable quality products will be standard in all stores.

You can Contribute by trying them out and experimenting with its applications in home, office, vehicles and helper robots. Only those that design lamps that withstand Surges, Brown-outs, Lightning Strikes, Spikes will Shine just like the Lamp above



"Look i even got into an LED Lamp to emphasize the Importance of LED Lighting"

Sunday, April 19, 2015

RCA - Radio Corporation of America

The Professor, Talking Machine, Wireless Becomes Radio, Color Television, Nipper and Chipper and More RCA History at....

The Wayback Machine snapshot of RCA History.

Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian electrical engineer, transmitted the first wireless signal in 1895. By the turn of the century he had formed telegraph companies in England and opened the first wireless office in New York City. In 1901, Marconi telegraphed the letter "S" across the Atlantic Ocean. The U.S. Navy was so impressed that it replaced a flock of carrier pigeons with the "wireless" for ship-to-shore communications.

Two years after inventing the phonograph, Edison brought the world the incandescent light bulb. Thirteen years later, his start-up electric company would merge with the Thomson-Houston Electric Company and be renamed General Electric.

RCA - Radio Corporation of America

In 1929, RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company, then the world's largest manufacturer of phonographs (including the famous "Victrola") and phonograph records. This included a majority ownership of the Victor Company of Japan, or JVC. The new subsidiary then became RCA-Victor. With Victor, RCA acquired New World rights to the Nipper trademark. This Trademark is also the trademark for the British music & entertainment company HMV who now display nipper in silhouette.

In the early 1920s, David Sarnoff publicly speculated on the possibility of "every farmhouse equipped not only with a sound-receiving device but with a screen that would mirror the sights of life." The idea of television was not new, and mechanical systems had demonstrated crude pictures. But it was Sarnoff's historic meeting with engineer Vladimir Zworykin that set the stage for RCA's success at electronic television transmission and reception.

Wikipedia - RCA - Radio Corporation of America

An RCA connector, sometimes called a phono connector or cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals. The name "RCA" derives from the Radio Corporation of America, which introduced the design by the early 1940s to allow mono phonograph players to be connected to amplifiers.

RCA Connector at Wikipedia

Friday, April 17, 2015

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Mains Power means the 230 V AC 50 Hz or 110 V AC 60 Hz in some countries, The lower power line like 5A is used for small lamps and fans. The higher power line 15A is used to drive the High Power Electrical Appliances like Heaters and Motors. This is a single phase supply.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Single phase Supply in layman language means a Live, a Neutral and an optional earth. The earthing is a must in every building along with lightning protection. The Neutral is a close to earth potential, The live can give a shock to a man who is in contact with earth at some part of the human body. So great care has to be taken. This live wire or point can be easily checked by a quality standards approved Neon Tester.

Voltmeter and Ammeter

Three phase supply - there are three Live wires, used in factorys and apartments to power bigger loads and Motors. A 3 phase AC motor is very efficient and economical and most machines like Drills and Lathes are powered by AC Motors. 3 phase supply becomes essential for industry.

The voltage is transmitted and supplied to houses at a high level in comparison to low level of batteries. This High Voltage is not safe but Inevitable, as transmitting at lower voltage means greater current carrying requirements of wires and connectors. That leads to more copper or aluminum usage, more wastage of power due to I2R.

Earthing has to be good, use a Earth Leakage Trip Device. If earth wire gets snapped outside and some appliance is leaking, the metal clad appliances may give shock. Even if no appliance is leaking, the current thru y-capacitors of EMI Filters in Electronic Gadgets like computers are enough to make your Neon tester glow.

The Circuits related to Mains Power
delabs

Wednesday, April 08, 2015

The Timeless Performer - 555 IC Chip

The Incredible 555 : Here are some 555 circuits, The most versatile and simple chip of all time !

Some of my 555 Circuits are at my blog - 555-Circuits - delabs Schematics

The best part of the 555 is that it has an voltage detection. It has a Versatile Logic which is defined by voltage comparators. The ability to loop it like an opamp for feedback makes it the first "Programmable" Mixed Chip. In short it make an ideal building block.

555 The most Incredible Chip - At my Learning-Teaching Blog Solderman Basics.

Signetics made the 555, This is one IC that is like a E-LEGO, this along with Op-Amps and other components can make many interesting projects. On some pins like Control Voltage it responds to analog signals and on Reset and Output the signals are Digital like. The 7555 a CMOS version consumes lower power and oscillates at higher frequencies.

555 Timer Circuits at delabs



555 Timer based Circuits

Wednesday, March 18, 2015

delabs Electronic Engineering Resources

These pages of mine and other sections of delabs, follow that old tradition and lists thousands of firms and EE design resources around the globe, related to Professional and Hobby Electronics. This work of mine started in 1999 on netscape, geocities and tripod homepages. Now it is distributed over few domains and tech blogs that i own and manage.

Electronics Engineering and Technologies

Electronics Engineering and Technologies

Some Electrical and Mechanical pages closely related to Electronic Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering are also listed here. delabs lists more than 10K EE Companies & Resources in the Web.

Categories of EE Websites of Firms and Resources

Tuesday, March 17, 2015

Multi Zone Process Monitor

Here is an ancestor of the product in the earlier post. It is a Process Scanner and Indicator. There was no control, but there were individual alarms for each channel.

This is a original design of mine, obsolete now due to size and technology. The inspiration of the product concept was from a Omega Catalog Item. Even today i use the Omega catalog for inspiration, but i do not design complete products, only circuit sections.

I manufactured such things in my firm called "Sigma Technologies". I became an entrepreneur as i did not get the encouragement and opportunities, even though i liked to be in R&D alone.

Multi Zone Process Monitor

The Omega catalog was introduced to me by the MD of a firm i worked in as a R&D Engineer in my young engineer like days. He used to call me and show a catalog product and ask me if i could build something like that. I would then design it working both at home and office, sometimes even in the night, it was just the enthusiasm or creating something new.

I even built the first Pneumatic Tyre Inflater with the help of the CNC director for that firm, this product won a national award in the nineties. I left the firm on a trivial issue which i never disclosed. It was Exhibition time, many new products were not complete, they asked me to make Mockup Dummy Instruments for demonstration only, overnight. I ran away.

Read more about Control Instruments at my pages here

Sunday, March 15, 2015

Reliable Robust Electronic Products

Use a Servo Stabilizer or CVT Constant Voltage Transformer or at least an Isolation Transformer. The First Defense form HV Surges, Spikes.

High Voltage Polyester & Polypropylene Metallized Capacitors in Stepdown Supplies should be Fire Retardant & Self Healing with a MOV too.

EE Design Library - Electronic Product Design Resource

Tropicalized means immunity or resistance of an equipment in conditions of varied Temperature, RH, Insects, Fungus, Brine, small life form.

Reliable Robust Electronic Products

Reliability by Simplicity

Vital controls should be Simple Electromechanical. Supervisory and Fine Automatic controls are in Embedded Computing. Mechanical Overrides!  

<< More Reliable - Mechanical, Electrical, Analog, Digital, Embedded System (Firmware), Computing System (OS+Software) - Less Reliable >>  

For a given quality level, more the components or parameters, may reduce reliability. Simpler the solution, more reliable it could be. 

Electronic Product Design is not only about Aesthetics and Affordable Price, but also Reliability, Safety, Longevity & Maintainability.

A Product's Life

If a product gives three years life with minimum service support it can save itself from building a bad reputation. six years will establish the brand on a long term basis, twelve years of product life you will have the user of the product selling for you.

Connectors and Interconnects

"Never Mix Electrical and Mechanical Connections" (probably from tektronix) this is a rule, more so for power connectors. Strain relief prevents mechanical stress from reaching the connector joints/spring metal. The wire terminations are also cushioned by strain relief.

The PCB and Product Engineering should ensure that the mechanical stress or load is not a job/function/role of the connector. At higher currents a small contact resistance can generate a lot of heat, worsening the contact further, similar to thermal runaway of Power Transistors.

delabs- 1999 - updated 2002 - 2010

Friday, March 06, 2015

Keysight BenchVue Mobile Interface

Keysight Oscilloscope Mobile is FREE software that lets you view and control your Keysight oscilloscope from your mobile device.

Keysight BenchVue Mobile Interface

BenchVue Mobile supports Keysight function generators, spectrum analyzers, power supplies, digital multimeters and oscilloscopes that are supported and connected by the BenchVue PC software.

Keysight Oscilloscope Mobile

The functionality in this app has been incorporated into a newer, free app named BenchVue Mobile that supports oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers, function generators, DMMs, and power supplies.

Supports up to 4 analog channels, Simulation mode available, Save screen captures from your instrument onto your mobile device, Your scope can be connected via LAN, GPIB, USB or RS232.

Tuesday, March 03, 2015

Educational Function Generator Demo

This app from keuwlsoft puts a waveform on the audio output at 44.1 kHz and with a resolution of 16-bit. Two separate waveforms can be output to the left and right audio output channels respectively.

Dual channel function/waveform/signal generator for the speaker/headphone audio output. Educational use, for critical applications use a real calibrated function generator.

Educational Function Generator Demo

Educational Function Generator Demo

Output will depend on your device hardware. Some device hardware may may filter out the DC bias and low frequency signals. At high frequencies, the waveforms will be distorted due to limited number of samples for each waveform (for example at 4.41kHz, a sine waveform will be approximated by only 10 points).

Either sine, square or triangular waveforms can be selected with the 3 buttons on the left of this section.

This is a single screen app with two displays at the top showing the waveforms for channels 1 and 2 respectively. The output can be turned on with the blue button at the bottom right. The left and right audio outputs can be assigned to either channel 1 or 2 and turned on or off in this output box.

(This app has not been tested completely by me, looks interesting and useful for learning)

Monday, March 02, 2015

SpecScope from NFX Development

This is an interesting attempt in the right direction. The bandwidth may be only the audio range, but the first instruments with touch interface for tablets are being built for tablets even by DIY Enthusiasts.

SpecScope from NFX Development

SpecScope is a spectrum analyzer and is the second in the line of engineer applications from NFX Development. The SpecScope incorporates the speed and ease of use to access FFT frequency measurements in a hurry.

SpecScope Spectrum Analyzer

Some of the Features
  • Logarithmic/Linear measurements
  • Pinch to zoom in both X and Y axis
  • Selectable No. bin for accuracy versus speed
  • Three settings of spectrum averaging
  • Threshold trigger to hold the peak value
  • Tap to pause and resume measurements (graph is still navigational in this mode)
  • A adjustable sample rate allow analysis from 10 Hz to 22KHz

Monday, February 09, 2015

Electrical Control Panel Wiring

Just like rackmounts hold big instruments or computers, control panels small or big have to hold DIN Instruments, switches and annunciators to make it easy for the operator. The maintenance work also is simple from the backside. It can be kept near the machinery which it controls.

Some Control panels go into Control Rooms at a distance away or at a greater height from the shop floor. This way they can monitor and give instructions while managing a larger process like processing of chemicals and at the same time safeguarding the instrumentation and computers with controlled environments.

Electrical Control Panel Wiring

Some of the pdf circuits are not easy to read, some have errors, this is mainly due to the importing of schematics from an older ORCAD Dos Version. I have corrected some circuits, some are to be checked. Also some circuits were not corrected after they were drawn by New Learners, as i wanted them to document what they learnt and familiarize with computers, Some did a good job. This section has no electronic parts, so you can figure out the diagrams.

Some example circuits of panels here Electrical Control Panel Wiring

delabs Technologies

Sunday, February 08, 2015

Process Control Instrumentation

This is a generic or standard controller for any type of process. Shown here is a temperature controller.

The STC1000 could be used for Ovens or furnaces, liquid baths, heating or environment chambers. It has a single analog input and an analog or relay output.
Temperature Controller

Process Control Instrumentation Section Updated

Analog inputs could be like 4-20 mA, thermocouple or RTD. Analog outputs can be 0-10 V for a thyristor drive, SSR drive output or potential free contacts of a relay to operate external 3 phase contacters.

The closed loop control could be On-Off or Time-Proportional. It was known as digital temperature indicating controller. Sometimes it would be used just as a Alarm or in a Trip circuit for protecting a system, when a uP or uC based PID controller fails.

This is used in the processing of plastics, rubber, metals and in chemical plants too. Here is a checklist that was made for helping its fabrication. You can see the limitations in which we manufactured these products. An optimum quality was evolved, defined by a user's affordability of the product.

Friday, February 06, 2015

Learn Electronics with EveryCircuit

An Android App on which you can create a circuit, tap play and watch dynamic voltage, current, and charge animations.

Learn Electronics with EveryCircuit

Even when the live simulation is running you can tweak circuit parameters with an analog knob, and the circuit reacts in real time for your study and experimentation. Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws, nonlinear semiconductor device equations, and more.

Learn Electronics with EveryCircuit

EveryCircuit Free

"Simplicity, innovation, and power, combined with mobility, make EveryCircuit a must-have companion for high school science and physics students, electrical engineering college students, breadboard and printed circuit board (PCB) enthusiasts, and ham radio hobbyists."

This app is related to Paul Falstad EE Applets and Tablet Apps

These are some educational java applets I wrote to help visualize various concepts in math, physics, and engineering. - Paul Falstad

Thursday, February 05, 2015

Process Control Circuits for Automation

These are the circuits and boards of a Mini Temperature Transmitter for a Platinum hundred ohms temperature Sensor.

Industrial Process Control Circuits has been updated.

3 Wire Transmitter

Circuits in process control
The customer wanted a two wire system, this needs low power opamps which were ten times the price. If this transmitter works at 3mA it could have been two wire. Those parts were in short supply and the budget of customer was low. So i made it with regular opamps but three wire. The customer was satisfied as he got a cost effective solution. But now the situation of markets and products are different.

If you need to transmit the temperature from a high voltage area or toxic environment. You will need to hermetically seal the transmitters, convert the Voltage to frequency, frequency to IR LED flashes or RF. This can be then remotely monitored. Then the transmitter has to be battery-solar operated, low power too. ICL7135 is a simple solution. It has a serial output that can be used to Drive IR Leds. Remotely sense these flashes in a Micro-controller and you have a reading. You may be able to use optic-fibers too. Where volatile liquids are present so that the risks of sparks can be eliminated.

Open Source Android Oscilloscope

An android virtual instrument - OsciPrime is an Open Source Android high speed data acquisition hardware platform and Android oscilloscope application.

Open Source Android Oscilloscope

OsciPrime data acquisition

Using USB, the hardware plugs into Android devices that support USB Host. Together with the OsciPrime Android oscilloscope application it turns a tablet or mobile phone into a high speed data acquisition system.

Open Source Android Oscilloscope

Hardware Specs:
  • 2x Analogue Input @ 8bit/6Msps
  • 5 analogue gain levels
  • 3.3 MHz - 8.0 MHz Bandwidth (gain dependant)
  • 16 V Max Input Voltage
  • 880 mW Power Consumption
  • Designed for 10x Probes
The Android App Instrument Performance and Controls Include

Controls -V-Offset, Time-Offset, Calibration; Trigger Controls Falling/Rising and Edge, You can Measure Voltage, Freq and Period.  
  • Range +/- 1.5 V up to +/- 16 V
  • 5 us/Div max - 1 ms/Div min 
  • Processing 400'000 samples per second

Tuesday, February 03, 2015

Jot-a-Note is now Cloud Desktop

The Gadget Jot-a-Note which was on Google Gears has been modified for Cookies Data Storage. Now it has Sticky Notes, Clock and Calculator. - 2010

Now in a Google Cloud Bucket as Online Cloud Desktop 2017. This has not been modified since 2011, just cleaned and some images improved.

Jot-a-Note for your iGoogle or Blog

Jot-A-Note also supports HTML inside notes. That means you can have Simple HTML and CSS formatting. Images and iframe-gadgets. Jot a Note is now Jot Desktop .

Jot-a-Note changed added Widgets

There is a Golden SteamPunk Clock too built in. If you want it separately in your iGoogle..

Monday, January 12, 2015

Analog Op-Amp Circuits

Operational Amplifiers

With a few Op-Amps and a regulated Power supply, many Instrumentation and Process control equipment can be designed. The Human Brain understands Numbers, Quantity and it regulation very well ! On the right you can see a analog controller based on opamps and discrete devices. A Heater, Fan and Motor is regulated, controlled and timed for a process.

Analog Controller based on Opamps
Analog is about numbers, the circuits can be understood and designed mathematically or empirically. Designing and Building a True RMS Rectifier with Op-Amps, will help a designer digest many Op-Amp capabilities.

Read this to learn to use Op-Amps - Basic Semiconductor Circuits Manual

Analog Op-Amp Circuits

Things you ought to know about Op-Amps -

OpAmp part numbers from various semiconductor companies are designed for both General purpose and special applications. Some have to be cost-effective for consumer low-cost equipment, while others may be advanced in specs, closing in on an ideal Op-Amp.

Instrumentation opamps are used for accurate and low drift applications. These Op-Amps have stringent specifications and are used in the fields like Aerospace or Medical Electronics. A pre-amplifier for an FM Radio may need to be low-priced. Test Measurement needs Op-Amps which have near ideal specs in the area of measurement or application. CMOS low-power devices are used when designs are made for portable gadgets.
  • Outputs cannot be Loaded beyond the drive capacities, Note Resistors and Output Load.
  • Inputs draw a small bias current and will load the signal sources, compensate design.
  • Op-Ams AF-RF or Switching performance study with Slew rate and Bandwidth.
  • Power consumption of some Op-Amps are more and some very less, choose wisely.
  • Look for Standard Pin-Outs, Price, Popularity and study Abs. Max, AC and DC Specs.
  • Use Packages with multiple Op-Amps like LM324 to save board space and assembly time.
  • Op-Amps and its 1% MFR resistors should have a separate supply and far from hot parts.
  • Ultra Low Offset Voltage is required, when you wish to amplify a DC level of say 500uV.
  • Guard rings to be used for High impedance inputs and EMI-RFI Shielding for AF Amplifiers.
  • Glass epoxy PCB, clean surface, Pins and Tracks protected from Moisture and Chemicals.
  • Avoid Ground Loops, Have regulated Low ripple Power supplies. Dynamic Isolation.
delabs Technologies

Saturday, January 10, 2015

Drawing Tools for Electronic Schematics in Android

Here are some Circuit Diagram Drawing Tools for Android Tablets, they may be still under development. It may be Interesting to explore and try out.

Schematic Demo is an easy-to-handle and comfortable CAD-software, developed for different kinds of diagrams.

Schematic Demo Dmitry Ustimov

Editing objects performed by interaction with a device touch screen. You can create and edit such graphic objects as: - Point, Line, Polyline, Bezier curve, Arc, Ellipse and Rectangle.

Schematic Demo Dmitry Ustimov

Electronic schematic drawing application for Android by Harry Konstas
palmDraft lite ElectronicsCAD

palmDraft lite ElectronicsCAD

This is a bitmap-based CAD, featuring a high definition, flick-panning, pinch-zoom-able working canvas optimized for finger and pen drawing. It's as easy to manipulate as a sheet of paper. The schematics file format is standard .PNG bitmap file format which can be easily exported and shared for printing.

MCU simulator for Android OS

The MCU simulator for Android OS runs Assembly language code similar to the 68705 MCU on a simulated on-screen prototype board. Great for embedded applications hobbyists, students, teachers or anyone who likes to experiment with electronic Micro-controller prototype boards. It's fun for learning assembly language too!

Ostermiller Basic and Scientific Calculator

Scientific Expression or Formula Calculations. Twenty Transaction Memory and Tape, Different bases like Decimal and Octal, Logic Math, Functions, Constants.

Ostermiller Basic and Scientific Calculator -



Ostermiller Calculator xml code

Deriving knowledge and inspiration from ostermiller.org. The GUI and Skin Modifications were done by me.

Screenshot

Scientific Calculator

Source Code - delabs-dapj - scientific-calculator

It has Brackets to build your own math equation. Scientific Functions like Trigonometric, Hyperbolic, Logarithmic.Memory (cookies), A Paper Trail or Tape for Equation and Result History.

Thursday, January 01, 2015

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

This is the best Instrumentation OpAmp, Great CMRR, ensure supply has no ripple and keep analog and digital grounds separate. Ri can be replaced with a trimpot and resistor to alter gain. Connect a preset ends to pins 1 and 8 and preset wiper to VCC for Offset Null when high gains are configured.

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

The Input zeners and diodes form a protective clamp for all voltages above VCC-VDD. If supply is changed to +12 -12 change zeners to 12V zeners. Use similar Zeners at output to protect Output from being zapped by over-voltages or high energy - voltage or frequency transients. Add plastic capacitors across Rf for damping AC operation or ripple. Also avoid floating inputs by providing a bias, till you connect it to a sensor; or you will see electrometer like effects.

Three OpAmp Instrumentation Amp xml code