Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

This is the best Instrumentation OpAmp, Great CMRR, ensure supply has no ripple and keep analog and digital grounds separate. Ri can be replaced with a trimpot and resistor to alter gain. Connect a preset ends to pins 1 and 8 and preset wiper to VCC for Offset Null when high gains are configured.

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

Instrumentation Amp - Op-Amp Designs

The Input zeners and diodes form a protective clamp for all voltages above VCC-VDD. If supply is changed to +12 -12 change zeners to 12V zeners. Use similar Zeners at output to protect Output from being zapped by over-voltages or high energy - voltage or frequency transients. Add plastic capacitors across Rf for damping AC operation or ripple. Also avoid floating inputs by providing a bias, till you connect it to a sensor; or you will see electrometer like effects.

Monday, March 05, 2018

Analog Interface for PC Ports

Here are examples of an analog Input and Output interface for Printer Port. There are two visual basic demo programs with source to test out idea.

Analog Interface for PC Ports

USB and wireless interface to PC may be more in vogue, but a higher speed is possible in printer-port. For analog and digital fast data acquisition, PC cards to full Access to PC bus are the best choice.

Analog Interface for PC Ports

The Sensors and Actuators interfaced with a computer form a basic automation system or even a robot. So learning to interface Sensors (input devices like a thermocouple or pH sensor) and Actuators (output devices like a motor or heater) with a PC is the best way to start. It is by studying examples and experimenting cautiously can one learn the science, book reading alone will never help.

See the Hardware Book connector details, cables, adapters, etc. The RS232-Serial Port, The Parallel- Centronics port, The USB-firefire port are good to start with. Then you can interface by LAN or Wireless- LAN or TCP/IP-Internet to make Robots or Automation extend to multiple places and computers. The possibilities are endless, imagination is the limit for students. But entrepreneurs need to be practical and only make equipment that have a utility and sensible market scope.

The circuits and code have some errors, The documentation is not complete.
DVM = digital volt meter MVS = milli volt source

Thursday, March 01, 2018

Mixed Electronic Designs

Analog Designs have to handle Linear Signals, Like 2.03 V and 35.3812 mA. Waveforms of all shapes from Straight Line DC Levels to the Jittery and Multi-Frequency Audio Waveforms.

Digital Designs manage Digital Signals, Like 0 and 5V Logic levels. All families of digital Logic, have some Threshold Limits and Voltage windows to determine Data Voltage or Current levels over Noise; this (Analog) comparator like action evaluates a High or Low Logic state. There are only two states, one is Low and the Other is High. 0 and 1 Respectively. The Third State in the word like Tristate, is a floating high impedance for Bus sharing between devices.

Mixed Electronic Designs

I would like to understand Mixed Circuit Designs as any circuit made of Valves, Discretes or Chips; in which both Analog signals and Digital Signals are Used. That would make an Analog Mux a Mixed Circuit, so also a PLL and a VCO.

Mixed Design Example

This is a R-2R Digital to Analog Converter, It converts a byte (8 bit) to a analog value. It has 256 levels including zero. This can be used to convert a byte sent from a microcontroller to a analog value like say 1.51 V. At full scale, when all 8 bits are high calibrate to give 2.55 V then ever bit increment is 0.01V, 10mV steps.

Digital to Analog with R2R Ladder Network

Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital

Mixed Signal IC or ASIC are chips that are mainly Digital on the Core but have peripheral I/O within the chip to interface with the real world outside, over Analog Signals. Sensors and Actuators use signals in the analog language. The CPU with its Math Power, speaks Digital Words, its behavior thus can be patterned by a Software Program.
RF Microwave and Communication Chips; Power Electronic PWM Integrated Circuits are Specialized Niche Mixed Sub-Domains.

Therefore any Student of Robotics, Multimedia and Instrumentation, must be good at these Mixed Designs and a master of C Programming.

Related Resources

Wednesday, February 07, 2018

Aircraft Dashboard Clock Mimic Gadget

Digital Clock with 24 hour Military Time Format, Aircraft Dashboard Chronometer Like Looks, Date, Time, Weekday and Week of Year. Clock Gadget, looks like a Clock in Cockpit Dashboard. It is a Mimic of A Flight Chronometer Instrument. It shows Time and Date close to Military Time-Date format. It also has week number and weekday display.

Aircraft Clock xml code

Screenshot of Aircraft Cockpit Clock

Aircraft Cockpit Clock

Clock Gadget, looks like a Clock in Cockpit of Aircraft Dashboard. It is a Mimic of A Flight Chronometer Instrument. It shows Time and Date close to Military Time-Date format. It also has week number and weekday display. This Project includes an Analog Bargraph Clock Gadget on the same code.

Aircraft Clock Source GitHub  and Aircraft Clock Page

This Project includes an Analog Bargraph Clock Gadget on the same code.

Analog Clock, Linear Display of Time Elapsed using Bargraph, Shows Week Days and Month Days Passed. The WD indicates Complete Week Days passed and MD is Month Days Completed. This is not the date, date is MD+1. This is an example of CSS Animation, that was the Motivation for this clock.

Monday, February 05, 2018

QCRTGraph Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android

You can develop Android Virtual Instruments with these components. You could integrate scrolling graphs, meters, bar graphs, gauges, annunciators, dynamic text, and UI controls to Android/Java based applications.Instrumentation GUI and Graphics

QCRTGraph Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android Studio

The Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android library, entirely written using Java for the Android platform, is for developers who want to add sophisticated real-time graphics to their Android applications.

The software integrates the QCChart2D charting software with real-time data structures and specialized rendering routines.

QCRTGraph Real-Time Graphics Tools for Android

Process Variable and Alarms - Real-time data is stored in RTProcessVar classes. The RTProcessVar class is designed to represent a single process variable, complete with limit values, an unlimited number of high and low alarms, historical data storage, and descriptive strings for use in displays.

Panel Meter Indicators - The RTPanelMeter derived classes are special cases of the single value indicator classes that are used throughout the software to display real-time data in a text format. Panel meters are available for numeric values, string values, time/date values and alarm values.

Alarm Indicators - Alarm indicators are used to display alarm lines, symbols and fill areas for the RTProcessVar objects associated with the single value and multiple value indicator classes.

Quinn-Curtis is a leading supplier of real-time graphics tools software, for Windows, .Net, and Java platforms.

18 Hearthstone Dr., Medfield, MA 02052 USA

Thursday, February 01, 2018

Pin Note Web Gadget

This is a Tiny memo Pad that will have Sticky Notes on Webpage, saves in cookies. This Web Gadget was for the Google Homepage, Web-page or blog. Pin Notes

Screenshot and help of Gadget

Pin Note Web Gadget

Note - This is toy or fun gadget not for serious note taking, it is more an example of css-dhtml-js for study or learning.

24 March 2010 - Data Freedom in PSV, Pipe Separated like | and ||. Now you can move to a competing Notes Service Provider if you feel our interface or features are not just right. 


This was later enhanced to the Jot a Note gadget. Jot a Note then became Jot Desktop.

Saturday, January 06, 2018

Reliability in Axial and Radial Plastic Capacitors

The Axial capacitors like Metalized Polypropylene MPP are more reliable in comparison of their radial counterparts of same voltage rating.

Also note 440V AC Continuous rating reads and translates differently than 630V DC Max. Overrating is an important step in reliability for engineers.

High Energy Circuits

Radial plastic caps, in mass production, due to various inconsistencies in production or quality measurement, are not recommended for high voltage unless its is a Manufacturer known for long term reliability and quality track record.

Reliability in Axial and Radial Plastic Capacitors

The radial caps when being wound, stretches the film/dielectric or weakens the dielectric at some areas as the turn is sharp, top/bot. This is possible unless the winding machine relaxes strain around the turns. In a Axial that may not be a problem as the film has more uniform stretch. The other reason could be that the Film is wrapped a little on corners or compressed on epoxy impregnation. It could also be low quality non-uniform PP material.

Power Electronics & Solar Energy

Components Manufacturers have to spruce up a Raw-Material and Component Quality, not by red-tape but by actually improving the manufacturing and procurement processes, as the quantities involved are huge.

Thursday, January 04, 2018

LED Lighting - The Future is Here

LED Lighting is more important than you think it is. Start Using Alternative Energy, like Wind Power and Solar, Tidal and even Magmatic.

LED Lighting at Wikipedia

On September 24, 2009 the DOE announced that Philips Lighting North America was the first to submit lamps in the category to replace the standard 60 W A-19 "Edison screw fixture" light bulb, with a design based on their earlier "EnduraLED" consumer product.

LED Lighting - The Future is Here

On August 3, 2011, DOE awarded the prize in the 60 W replacement category to Philips bulb after 18 months of extensive testing. The 10-W, 900-lumen Philips bulb was made available to consumers in April 2012.

The same day, CREE demonstrated a prototype lamp producing 1330 lumens with a mere 8.7 W of input power. While the CREE lamp has not undergone DOE reliability testing and no commercial release date was promised, it is an indication that the "21st Century Lamp" performance levels may soon be within reach of commercial products.

Tuesday, January 02, 2018

Front End Security for SMPS

Now we have smps in most everything. AC Adapters and CFL lamps and many Home Consumer Electronics. The Failures of these units are on the rise. The Cooper transformers are out, but the SMPS reliability is falling.

Designing and manufacturing a SMPS facing a 230V input constantly, is not easy. You cannot Mutz your way in this, in a cost-cutting spree of this Vital Organ, just to have a competitive advantage of 'a lower cost product' (read cheap).

Now 230 V AC 50 Hz is not what you think it has, it has EMI-RFI, Inductive Kickback Spikes from the neighborhood, resonating and ringing with the RLC network that your home wiring forms. Lightning and Atmospheric Static that may strike at the weakest part on the SMPS. Wrong wiring, 3 phase mess ups. short circuits, falling tree branches, thunderstorm. Your SMPS is facing the Real Harsh Cruel world and the best part, they left off the Security Department to keep costs low. The critters in the box get zapped for no fault of theirs.

Front End Security for SMPS

There is one difficult way out of this, we move to a 24V DC standard within the house, it is safe and the Box outside the house faces all the Electrical Environment Variables and Unpredictability. This box that charges the battery and steps down the mains voltage can be protected well. Protection on this one unit, protects all the equipment in the Home or office. This is the Civilized way electricity should be used in Homes and Offices. Easy to integrate with Alternative energy. Factories can have all the High Voltage they want.

When a good technical collaborator is involved, quality is given due respect, the products are affordable yet robust. Some firms cut off vital circuitry (these happen in mechanical, electrical and chemical field too) to keep the product cost low. These products will work well in a Mains conditioned environment which is only affordable in some companies and never at homes.

The Security system consists of something that a Surge Protector from Belkin has. Let us see the traditional way, We need Gas Discharge Tube Lightning Arrestors. Then Varistors, Thermistors, X and Y caps and the Common Mode Choke Coils. A high voltage and high current fast acting fuse or trip circuit. Overrating of Mosfet and caps that face the high voltages. Using HV Back-to-Back zeners with fuses. Snubber Plastic HV self healing caps and Fast Switching diodes to absorb the inductive spikes.

Do it within the budget you have. SMPS should withstand 1.2KV microsecond pulses. 600V millisecond pulses and 400V for a few seconds. 300V AC for many minutes. Else let us go 24V Standard.

Other Protection devices your house or lab may needs to have. CVT - Constant Voltage Transformer, 1:1 Isolation Transformer, Servo Motorized Auto-transformer Stabilizer, Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker, HV-Relay Trip Circuit, Overload Current Relay Trip Circuit, MCB, Switched Triac or Relay, Copper Transformer Stabilizer with Layer or Layer Primary Insulation to protect against high voltage. This transformer should have earth shield, guarded terminals, primary windings should not slip layers, Vacuum Impregnated. 

May the Earth be good to you ! - Means - the earthing in your Home of Office should be excellent and do not compromise on Wiring Insulation and Switchgear. Let the wires outside have concrete gutters which are closed so that water or rodents do not get to the cables.

Read more at my Power Electronics Section

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