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Thursday, August 01, 2019

The Success of the LED Lamp

The White LED Lamp is a Success today, more and more firms are manufacturing them. Millions are using it and is moving forward taking over the slots once occupied by CFL Lamps.

Still Filament and other Lamps are in use, even i like it much. CFL reliability and quality has improved. Then the LED Lighting has far too many Advantages and will be the Default Lighting Product of the future. It can easily adapt to the 24V Low voltage Standard, with Solar Energy Interface too.

The Insides of a LED Bulb

The Insides of a LED Bulb

The AC to DC converter can be designed in various ways. The SMPS, the CFL Lamp Driver and this Mains Bulb LED driver all belong to the same Electronic Species.


Clean Rooms and Electronics

Clean rooms and Dust free environment is a must for Precision Mechanical Engineering. It is not MEMS or nano sizes, even micron sizes accuracy in parts can be affected by Dust and Humidity.

In Electronics, Timepiece Manufacturing, Medical Equipment and Scientific Apparatus companies. Clan Rooms ensure long term reliability and safety of the products not to forget Precision.

EE Design Library - Electronic Product Design Resource.

Even if a Place is partially Dust free, it is better to have all objects with the least surface area. The way Motors are designed, Interiors of houses even a Machine

Clan Rooms and Electronics

You can enclose objects with many contours and unclean-able surfaces within a Spherical or Cubical Transparent Cover, this is easy for inspection and cleaning.

Dust, Oil, Sand and Humidity makes Grime. Never allow Rodents and Roaches in the Workplace they are larger than 100 microns.

Resources - Electronic Firms and Electronic Projects.

Tools and Equipment must be maintained free of rust/corrosion and exposure to brine or chemical fumes. Metal tools must be cleaned, oiled and stored in dry places when not in use.

Power Electronics Design Methods

I first saw this practically in the Orthodox Cherokee SMPS. This is where we differentiate from Engineered Products and just Mass Production without following standards. The Cherokee SMPS was a work of art, perfect in all respects.

The Copper Desert or Isolation Land

There is a No Man's Land in PCB. Any good power electronics designer should/will know. Product Safety and HV Isolation, Quality and Reliability all depend on this.

High Energy Circuits

Power Electronics Design Methods

These things don't come overnight, it is a culture, learning, experience and integrity of some of these American Firms. Reliability and Product safety are important. Every human values his life very much. A manufacturer too should appreciate this.

Coming back to isolation, Keep in mind creepage distance, High energy circuits and Low voltage circuits should have clear isolation, use the best insulation. Fire and shock hazard. Mains HV transitions, spikes.

Regulated High Voltage Power Supply

Power supply faces all these, even other areas where a Human Life or Property can be endangered.

HV High Voltage Reliability and Safety

Use a Servo Stabilizer or CVT Constant Voltage Transformer or at least an Isolation Transformer. The First Defense form HV Surges, Spikes.

High Voltage Polyester & Polypropylene Metallized Capacitors in Stepdown Supplies should be Fire Retardant & Self Healing with a MOV too.

Wednesday, July 03, 2019

Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

This is an Op-Amp Tutorial. Here you see an Operational Amplifier in the Inverting Amp configuration. I have used OP07 as it is almost like an ideal Opamp. The ultra low offset is the best part. Then not really, CA3140 has a Tera Ohm Input resistance but offset not the best. ICL7650 approaches an Ideal Op-Amp and chopper stabilized.

Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

These parameters are good for DC Amps. Sensors, Strain Gauge Bridges Signal Conditioning need them. Then when you want a better AC performance, you can use a LF353 with a nice slew rate. Here the DC merits are not of much use.

Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

Input Impedance of this module is Ri as pin 2 is at virtual ground, the opamp with feedback tries to maintain pin 2 and 3 at same potential pin 3 is at 0V hence pin 2 is at virtual ground. Clamping diodes protect OpAmp, Rf + Ri is between 5kE and 1ME as an opamp may be able to drive around say 5mA max


Monday, July 01, 2019

Widgets from delabs

There are Web widgets related to learning electronics and also demonstrating the subtle aspects of Product Design Technologies. This blog also has the widgets made by delabs from the iGoogle days, around 2005. These demonstrate solutions for improving usability in devices.

EE Widgets of delabs - Here i am moving traditional html pages content into an expression-engine cms in the multi-site mode. In this site i have managed to give it a skin with images using an incremental css file. The old Site which has moved many times is here dapj gadgets.

Widgets from delabs

After Google Plus service ended, i am reducing the dependence on external services. I have also removed these projects from github, the code i created more than a decade ago is outdated now. It is also better we depend on ourselves and open-source projects.