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Wednesday, July 03, 2019

Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

This is an Op-Amp Tutorial. Here you see an Operational Amplifier in the Inverting Amp configuration. I have used OP07 as it is almost like an ideal Opamp. The ultra low offset is the best part. Then not really, CA3140 has a Tera Ohm Input resistance but offset not the best. ICL7650 approaches an Ideal Op-Amp and chopper stabilized.

Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

These parameters are good for DC Amps. Sensors, Strain Gauge Bridges Signal Conditioning need them. Then when you want a better AC performance, you can use a LF353 with a nice slew rate. Here the DC merits are not of much use.

Inverting Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

Input Impedance of this module is Ri as pin 2 is at virtual ground, the opamp with feedback tries to maintain pin 2 and 3 at same potential pin 3 is at 0V hence pin 2 is at virtual ground. Clamping diodes protect OpAmp, Rf + Ri is between 5kE and 1ME as an opamp may be able to drive around say 5mA max


Monday, July 01, 2019

Widgets from delabs

There are Web widgets related to learning electronics and also demonstrating the subtle aspects of Product Design Technologies. This blog also has the widgets made by delabs from the iGoogle days, around 2005. These demonstrate solutions for improving usability in devices.

EE Widgets of delabs - Here i am moving traditional html pages content into an expression-engine cms in the multi-site mode. In this site i have managed to give it a skin with images using an incremental css file. The old Site which has moved many times is here dapj gadgets.

Widgets from delabs

After Google Plus service ended, i am reducing the dependence on external services. I have also removed these projects from github, the code i created more than a decade ago is outdated now. It is also better we depend on ourselves and open-source projects.

Small and Big Bizness

If you are a small company you have an ability to grow and improve as adrenaline is working. Many large companies due to inertia lose their core skills; because they become complacent. They shrug off customers and responsibilities. They soon become careless and slovenly, Then they start stepping on others toes.

Small and Big Bizness

Soon they seem to only struggle to maintain their virtual positions by various adjustments. Later corruption and red tape sets in. The small company remains agile, attentive and proactive and slowly gets better market share, but they have the disadvantage of cash flow and contacts.

The conclusion is big and small both are at par. The Big ones have to consolidate, reform, hive off and be sensible. The Small ones has to be ever look out for opportunities left open. There are good sensible big corporations who know this, they work with a sense of social responsibility, try to become like them, for they know the secret to be big and agile.

Necessity is the Mother of Invention. Fortuity is the Father of Innovation.

- delabs 2002

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Hitachi - Engineering and Technologies

Hitachi is a highly diversified company with products and solutions in High Functional Materials & Components, Power Systems, Electronic Systems & Equipment, Automotive Systems, Digital Media...

Hitachi - Engineering and Technologies

Hitachi was founded in 1910 by electrical engineer Namihei Odaira. The company's first product was Japan's first 5-horsepower electric induction motor, initially developed for use in copper mining. Odaira's company soon became the domestic leader in electric motors and electric power industry infrastructure

Hitachi J100 adjustable and Variable frequency drive

Hitachi J100 adjustable and Variable frequency drive. Photographed by C J Cowie

Hitachi at Wikipedia 

Hitachi has contributed immensely to semiconductor and electronic manufacturing technologies.
  • 1958 Completed six-transistor miniature portable radio
  • 1959 Completed electronic computers based on transistors
  • 1966 Developed LTP processing technique for silicon transistors
  • 1978 Experimental color camera with solid-state miniature image device developed
Hitachi History

1976 Hitachi portable VTR, for Sony 1" type C; the source and take-up reels are stacked for compactness.

HITACHI 1 Zoll-C-Maschine - Video tape recorder

HITACHI 1 Zoll-C-Maschine - Video tape recorder

Monday, June 03, 2019

Intersil Hot Ideas 1983 Mixed CMOS Revolution

These helped me build Intelligent Instruments in the 80s. Intersil was with GE earlier, innovators of   advanced CMOS before anybody else. They made the smartest chips when the Microprocessors were being examined Skeptically by engineers. (At that time Microprocessors needed many support chips and consumed huge power only later CMOS uC came).

Intersil Hot Ideas - 1983

Intersil Hot Ideas - 1983

Today i found out that another company of that time called Datel is back, it was first a part of GE like Intersil then went to Murata now after decades it is back home.

"Datel was established in 1970 and has been a long time leader in providing high precision data acquisition components, including data converters, power supplies, DC-DC converters, and digital panel meters. "

Alternate Energy Plans by Lee Bell

At the PackRat WorkShop Lee Bell has archived Power-Energy Ideas, Mechanical Howto and Robot Designs too. A Practical Man, His drawings are a language by itself. He has created a useful resource which will keep a DIY Enthusiast busy for many months.

Alternate Energy Plans by Lee Bell

"I already had a marine deep cycle type battery and an alternator that someone had traded me a while back in exchange for a 1hp dc treadmill motor. He was building a windmill and the car alt needed too many rpm's for what he wanted to do. I think it's a standard GM type." - Lee Bell

Alternate Energy Plans by Lee Bell

delabs Notes

Alternate Energy, storing and managing your own small power source, are an invaluable asset for Home or Small Business.

Depending on oneself, not only develops skills but also keeps you in form always. Building an energy source cost-effectively, requires you to put in a lot of learning and building efforts.That itself may become your future Small Business

Remember Fossil Fuels are Running out fast, Only Internet Communications and Alternative Energy will keep Business Blooming.

The lifestyle has to change, The future Generations are going to face the Heat, or is it Bitter Cold ! Even Freezing ?

Coal and Steel with Steam brought about the First Industrial Boom. Then Oil created unprecedented Magic, the Second Technological Revolution. This will not last long. If only Rover found Oil in Mars, this post was not needed.

Friday, May 03, 2019

Engineering Poetry and Heuristics

Knowledge comes in Handy at every part of your Life. Entertainment should be Edutainment. Here is a collection of comments and blurbs i wrote around 2012 - delabs

Verify Again and Again

After doing something, Verify, ask a friend to crosscheck, verify again.



Engineering Poetry and Heuristics

Wait there is more ...

Then ask somebody who does not like you so much, to check or test it and offer critical comments.

delabs design service - Circuit and product design


Differential Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

A very simple one op-amp diff amp. This amplifies the difference between two inputs Vp and Vn the low impedance of this configuration is a drawback, but can be used in analog computing. Optimum VCC VDD can be +12/-12. AC signals common to Vp and Vn are canceled by this configuration.

Differential Amplifier - Op-Amp Circuits

Differential Amplifier - Op-Amp Designs

Use a capacitor like 10nF plastic from pin 2 to 3 or across R2 to make circuit stable. For AC applications use LF351 TLO71 as they have good slew rate and also are FET inputs. For AC applications use a capacitor (1uF) in series with Ri to block DC Components.

Buffer Unity Gain Amp - Op-Amp Designs

If output impedance of a point is a high value then connecting another circuit at that point will load it, resulting in malfunction or error. Buffers are used as interface between circuits.

Low impedance of an output means it can source/sink lot of current, when you need 2 opamps use LF353 or TL072 which are dual opamps.

Buffer Unity Gain Amp - dapj Tech Widgets

Buffer Unity Gain Amp - Op-Amp Designs

A non-inv FET input is the best buffer, for inverting buffer use high R values. Using very high R values like 2.2M or higher requires a glass epoxy PCB and guard rings around pin 2, 3 to prevent leakage currents on the PCB reaching the PINs.

Also moisture and dust has to be prevented by using RTV coating or Varnish. Use 78L05 and 79L05 for the dual supply required by this circuit.

Inverting Amp   -   Vout = -1 * Vin

Non-Inverting Amp   -   Vout = Vin

Vary the Millivolt Source by just hovering your Mouse pointer over the Two Buttons (Increment and Decrement). If you leave the mouse pointer on a button, the variation will pick up speed. Set a Value of your choice, positive or negative, you can set from -199.9mV to +199.9mV. Note the Output values on both the DVMs on the right (digital Volt Meter) in a Table. Repeat this for at-least 7 readings of both polarities. Jot the Formula below in your book and relate it to your table.

Saturday, April 06, 2019

Dual Differential Amp - Op-Amp Designs

The Input Impedance of this module is very high and is symmetric. This circuit can be used for strain gauges and for four wire measurements. If inputs are in mV use OP07. The merit is that it uses only 2 OpAmps yet has high differential Input Impedance.

Dual Differential Amp - Op-Amp Designs

Dual Differential Amp - Op-Amp Designs

The Outputs of Opamps are low impedance but still have limits they cannot drive more than a few mA of Current into the Load. If low ohmic value loads are to be applied use external transistors as amplifiers. If inputs Vn-Vp are floating, outputs may be random or oscillating, it is good to have a bias network of 10M resistors to a potential even zero or common, this enables some Vout when input floats.

Astable Multivibrator with 555

This is a demo of the popular 555 timer. you can try out the project on this page by a javascript simulation. Press the Red button below to turn on the circuit press it again to turn off. The 555 can source (LED2) or Sink (LED1) upto 200mA.  If you are starting with electronics, this is the first step. So do it now ! Do-It-Yourself.

Screenshot of Astable 555 Timer Flasher

It can even drive a small motor or lamp with diodes added to protect from inductive kickback.Vary Ra, Rb and Ct with the controls given and see the change of frequency, period and duty cycle.

Screenshot

Astable Multivibrator with 555

These are the formulae used by 555 and same is used in javascript without any change.

Monday, April 01, 2019

Mass Spectrometry and Portable Microbe Detector

Human Beings are helped or hampered by many types of Microbes. From the Sub-Microbe virus to animal like Bacterium and plant like Fungi.

An Affordable Portable Electronic Microbe Detector using Mass Spectrometry; may be very useful for Small HealthCare Centers and Homes. If a Person Breathes into an adapter in the instrument, it should show a simple analysis of the Air Microbe Levels. It can also be used for CleanRoom Air Purity Indication.

Mass Spectrometry and Portable Microbe Detector

This is just an idea for an urgent need, this may prevent spread of flu to escalate into an epidemic; due to early detection of microbe, at the root, in every home.

Here are some Mass Spectrometry Resources that students can study and attempt to research to Develop a cost-effective consumer flu-detection device.

Ideas of delabs - 2004- First posted in my blog Analytical Bionics.

Learn more about the Subject Basics

Saturday, February 02, 2019

Whence Input Hence Output

If Inputs are Distorted, The Outputs are Noisy.
Even if the Amplifier is Very Good.

If Raw Materials are of Poor Quality, The Finished Goods are Defective.
Even if the Process and Machinery is State Of The Art.

If the Specifications are incomplete, The Prototype will be rejected.
Even if the Design and Tools are Perfect.

Whence Input Hence Output - delabs

EE Design Library - Electronic Product Design Resource.

2002 - delabs Notes

Engineering the Technology Management

Sometimes even Management has to be Engineered to help it change its ways of thinking in a world that is fast changing. A Planet that is defined by the Consumer or Customer more strongly than any other factor.

Technologies should scale with Infrastructure. Buildings cannot stress the Foundations meant for. Traffic proportional to Road Width. Sync

Technology Management

Raw Materials - Components - Finished Products. The Entire Processing and Design Chain has to improve, if the final Product has to Shine.

Let us use more of our Brain than Brawn, Quality; Reliability & Safety will see a Dawn.

High Value Engineering

In Engineering High Value products are those that are a combination of Precision Mechanical + Electrical + Analog + Embedded Microcontroller.

Study and Learn ?? Examine and Experiment >> Analyze and Establish [o] Realize !!

delabs EE Design

delabs Notes - 2002

Friday, February 01, 2019

Materials and Inventory Management

The Inventory of a Firm should be Open within an Organization. Searching with a browser, Integrateable with departmental webware/intranet. With a very easy readable non-programmer friendly API.

Components Parts Kits and Materials

The Search must be based on Multiple Keywords, Filters or Tags. Dormant Inventory and Parts/Equipment/Furniture not on any live project anymore, Excess Inventory and Obsoleted Parts due to Tech Advancement; should be flagged. This enables other departments to use it, consume it for Maintenance or Research projects or integrate into new designs if not-obsolete.

Materials and Inventory Management

If found to be valueless, damaged or worn-out by all departments and responsible engineers, then inventory should be sold or given away. The Employees can be the first customers for an inhouse Corporate Garage Sale. An un-organized, complexly-computerized and non-transparent/blocked Stores will end up in a Flea Market.

Monday, January 07, 2019

RCA - Radio Corporation of America

The Professor, Talking Machine, Wireless Becomes Radio, Color Television, Nipper and Chipper and More RCA History at....

The Wayback Machine snapshot of RCA History.

Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian electrical engineer, transmitted the first wireless signal in 1895. By the turn of the century he had formed telegraph companies in England and opened the first wireless office in New York City. In 1901, Marconi telegraphed the letter "S" across the Atlantic Ocean. The U.S. Navy was so impressed that it replaced a flock of carrier pigeons with the "wireless" for ship-to-shore communications.

RCA - Radio Corporation of America

Two years after inventing the phonograph, Edison brought the world the incandescent light bulb. Thirteen years later, his start-up electric company would merge with the Thomson-Houston Electric Company and be renamed General Electric.

The Timeless Performer - 555 IC Chip

The Incredible 555 : Here are some 555 circuits, The most versatile and simple chip of all time !

Some of my 555 Circuits are at my blog - 555-Circuits - delabs Schematics

The best part of the 555 is that it has an voltage detection. It has a Versatile Logic which is defined by voltage comparators. The ability to loop it like an opamp for feedback makes it the first "Programmable" Mixed Chip. In short it make an ideal building block.

555 The most Incredible Chip - At my Learning-Teaching Blog Solderman Basics.

Signetics made the 555, This is one IC that is like a E-LEGO, this along with Op-Amps and other components can make many interesting projects. On some pins like Control Voltage it responds to analog signals and on Reset and Output the signals are Digital like. The 7555 a CMOS version consumes lower power and oscillates at higher frequencies.

555 Timer Circuits at delabs



555 Timer based Circuits

Friday, January 04, 2019

Open Source Android Oscilloscope

An android virtual instrument - OsciPrime is an Open Source Android high speed data acquisition hardware platform and Android oscilloscope application.

Open Source Android Oscilloscope

OsciPrime data acquisition

Using USB, the hardware plugs into Android devices that support USB Host. Together with the OsciPrime Android oscilloscope application it turns a tablet or mobile phone into a high speed data acquisition system.

Open Source Android Oscilloscope

Hardware Specs:
  • 2x Analogue Input @ 8bit/6Msps
  • 5 analogue gain levels
  • 3.3 MHz - 8.0 MHz Bandwidth (gain dependant)
  • 16 V Max Input Voltage
  • 880 mW Power Consumption
  • Designed for 10x Probes
The Android App Instrument Performance and Controls Include

Controls -V-Offset, Time-Offset, Calibration; Trigger Controls Falling/Rising and Edge, You can Measure Voltage, Freq and Period.  
  • Range +/- 1.5 V up to +/- 16 V
  • 5 us/Div max - 1 ms/Div min 
  • Processing 400'000 samples per second